Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science

, Volume 2, Issue 1–2, pp 59–69 | Cite as

Variations in relationship between fundamental frequency and intensity in speech of children during development

  • Sumanlata GautamEmail author
  • Latika Singh
Research Paper


Prosody development provides insight into the development of a highly specialized system that is unique to humans. Prosody is mainly encoded by regulating the fundamental frequency, intensity and duration of various tokens during discourse construction. Interplay between the fundamental frequency and the intensity plays a crucial role in formulating prosody and adult speakers modulate these parameters to produce rhythmic sentences. However, it is not known, how this relationship between these two parameters evolve with age in the children. The present study tries to fill this gap partially by investigating the statistical nature of the correlation between fundamental frequency and intensity in the speech of 42 children and 25 adults between the ages of 4–25 years. Statistically significant differences were found in the distributions of correlations between children and adults. The difference can be attributed to evolving skills of children in encoding prosodic cues through modulation of intensity by alterations in flow of air from the lungs and controlling the vibrations of vocal folds.


Prosody development Correlation between fundamental frequency and intensity 



We thank Prof. Prabha Sharma for her precious critique and proof reading of the manuscript. We also wish to thank all the participants and the parents of the children who participated in this study.

Author contributions

Both the authors drafted the manuscript and contributed in concept, design, acquisition, analysis and interpretation of data. Both the authors have read and approved the final manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

We have read and understood policy on declaration of interests and declare that we have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThe NorthCap UniversityGurugramIndia
  2. 2.Department of Computer Science and EngineeringAnsal UniversityGurugramIndia

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