Journal of Cultural Cognitive Science

, Volume 2, Issue 1–2, pp 21–33 | Cite as

Literate and preliterate children show different learning patterns in an artificial language learning task

  • Naomi HavronEmail author
  • Limor Raviv
  • Inbal Arnon
Research Paper


Literacy affects many aspects of cognitive and linguistic processing. Among them, it increases the salience of words as units of linguistic processing. Here, we explored the impact of literacy acquisition on children’s learning of an artifical language. Recent accounts of L1–L2 differences relate adults’ greater difficulty with language learning to their smaller reliance on multiword units. In particular, multiword units are claimed to be beneficial for learning opaque grammatical relations like grammatical gender. Since literacy impacts the reliance on words as units of processing, we ask if and how acquiring literacy may change children’s language-learning results. We looked at children’s success in learning novel noun labels relative to their success in learning article-noun gender agreement, before and after learning to read. We found that preliterate first graders were better at learning agreement (larger units) than at learning nouns (smaller units), and that the difference between the two trial types significantly decreased after these children acquired literacy. In contrast, literate third graders were as good in both trial types. These findings suggest that literacy affects not only language processing, but also leads to important differences in language learning. They support the idea that some of children’s advantage in language learning comes from their previous knowledge and experience with language—and specifically, their lack of experience with written texts.


Language learning Literacy Artificial language Communication Linguistic units 



This work was supported by ISF Grant 52712 (to IA). The authors thank the schools, teachers, parents, and children for their cooperation. We thank the research assistants who helped administer the tasks: Tamar Johnson, Ruth Goldberg, and Yaron Shapira.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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© Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Sciences Cognitives et Psycholinguistique, Dept d’Etudes Cognitives, ENSPSL University, EHESS, CNRSParisFrance
  2. 2.Max Planck Institute for PsycholinguisticsNijmegenThe Netherlands
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyHebrew University of JerusalemJerusalemIsrael

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