Effect of dopant elements on structure and morphology of SnO2 nanoparticles
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Pure SnO2 and doped SnO2 nanoparticles with 2 wt.% ruthenium, 2 wt.% vanadium, and 2 wt.% antimony were synthesized via sol–gel and coprecipitation methods. The obtained doped and undoped dried powders after calcination treatment at different temperatures (973–1223 K) were studied. The structural and morphological characterization of the prepared samples was performed by X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), differential thermal/thermogravimetric analysis (DTA-TG), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS) and particle size distribution analysis. The effect of structural and morphological properties of the highly additive doped elements nanocrystalline SnO2 powders was discussed. The resulting particles were crystalline oxide particles in the nanometric range (8–31 nm). It was found that the amount of additive played important roles in the particle size effect of nanocrystalline SnO2. Particle size distribution of antimony-doped SnO2 are finer and narrower, and that of vanadium-doped, ruthenium-doped, and undoped SnO2 nanocrystallines are comparatively larger and broader in size distribution.
KeywordsCoprecipitation Doped Nanoparticle SnO2 Synthesis Sol-gel
The authors cordially thank the Metallurgy and Material Engineering Department by the Project of Dokuz Eylul University, BAP (Scientific Research Coordination Unit of DEU) (Project No: (2012.KB.FEN.025) for the infrastructural support. We thank Selim Demirci (Marmara University, Institute of Pure and Applied Sciences, Istanbul, Turkey) for organizing the article. The authors would like to thank State Planning Foundation (DPT) and Dokuz Eylul University for the infra-structural support in the establishment of the Dokuz Eylul University, Center for Production and Applications of Electronic Materials (EMUM) where this research was carried out.
This study received funding from the Metallurgy and Material Engineering Department by the Project of Dokuz Eylul University, BAP (Scientific Research Coordination Unit of DEU) (Project No: (2012.KB.FEN.025) and State Planning Foundation (DPT) and Dokuz Eylul University.