Structural transformations of mechanically alloyed polycrystalline YMnO3-based material for gas sensing application
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The structural transformation via sintering temperature towards yttrium manganese oxide (YMnO3) behavior will be investigated in this research work. The samples were prepared via mechanical alloying for 12 h using a SPEX8000D mill. The pelletized samples were sintered from 600 to 1250 °C with 50 °C increments respectively. The phase analysis reveals an enhancement of crystallinity with increasing grain size. Orthorhombic YMn2O5 phase was observed to be existing in the as-milled powder, and only hexagonal YMnO3 peaks were observed for ≥ 1000 °C. FESEM micrographs showed a variation starting at 49 nm up to 2.1 μm at largest grain size with sintering temperature increment. The activation energy was explained based on the changes on the event observed in phase analysis. For polarization-electric field (PE) hysteresis reveals YMnO3 is highly leaky ferroelectrics. The remanent polarization (Pr) was observed at 0.13 to 7.12 μC/cm2 and as for electric field (Ec), the value increased from 69.81 to 2742 V/cm generally with increasing grain size. The capacitance values were increased from 20.2 to 435 pF parallel to grain size increment. The behavior of YMnO3 samples series behave based on their difference of crystallinity, microstructure data, and phase purity changes.
KeywordsHexagonal YMnO3 Multiferroic Microstructure Mechanical alloying
The authors also gratefully acknowledge the Materials Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory (MSCL), Functional Devices Laboratory (FDL), Institute of Advanced Technology and Physics Department, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia for their facility to complete this research.
All the authors have contributed to the final manuscript of the present investigation. Nor Hapishah and Muhammad Syazwan and Rabaah Syahidah defined the research topic. Mohd Nizar and Siti Amaniah are involved in the synthesis, characterization, and analysis of the study involving gas sensing properties. Nor Hapishah wrote the manuscript and all the co-authors provided suggestions on the draft of the manuscript. All the authors examined and approved the final manuscript.
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Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no competing interest.
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