Advertisement

Ring-on-ring testing of laminated glass with polyvinyl butyral and ethyl vinyl acetate inter-layers of different critical thicknesses

  • A. VedrtnamEmail author
  • S. J. Pawar
Research

Abstract

The effect of edge condition and edge failure is significant while measuring the flexural strength of laminated glass (LG), thus, the biaxial tests such as ring-on-ring (ROR), ball-on-three-ball, ball-on-ring, and piston-on-ring are preferred over uniaxial tests such as three-point or four-point bending test. In the present work, the effect of inter-layer type (polyvinyl butyral (PVB) and ethyl vinyl acetate (EVA)) and inter-layer thicknesses (0.38, 0.76, 1.52 mm) on the flexural strength of LGs is reported. The flexural strength is measured using ROR test following the ASTM C1499-15. It is found that LG-EVA is stiffer and has the higher load-bearing capacity than the LG-PVB. An increment in the average load-bearing capacity is reported with an increment in inter-layer thickness in both LG-EVA (more prominent) and LG-PVB. The statistical analysis has confirmed the soundness of experimental results and the reliability of flexural strength of LG on the inter-layer type and thickness. Further, a finite element (FE) model is constituted for observing the total displacements (an indicator of the severity of fracture) observed by the LGs at their load-bearing capacity. The FE analysis has predicted the fracture pattern observed by the LG samples satisfactorily.

Keywords

Ring-on-ring test EVA Laminated glass PVB and FE analysis 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Present work is financially supported by the Technical Education Quality Improvement Programme (TEQIP-II) of Motilal Nehru National Institute of Technology Allahabad, Allahabad (U.P.), India and also by Invertis University, Bareilly, (U.P.), India.

References

  1. 1.
    Vedrtnam, A., Pawar, S.J.: Experimental and simulation studies on fracture and adhesion test of laminated glass. Eng. Fract. Mech. 190, 461–470 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Vedrtnam, A.: Effect of localized thermo-chemical treatment on bending strength of laminated glass. International Journal of Structural Glass and Advanced Materials Research. (2018).  https://doi.org/10.3844/ofsp.11856
  3. 3.
    Padhi, G.S., Shenoi, R.A., Moy, S.S.J., Hawkins, G.L.: Progressive failure and ultimate collapse of laminated composite plates in bending. Compos. Struct. 40, 277–291 (1997)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vedrtnam, A., Pawar, S.J.: Numerical analysis of impact fracture of laminated glass - a review. MOJ Civil. Eng. 3(6), 00086 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.15406/mojce.2017.03.00086 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Vedrtnam, A., Pawar, S.J.: Experimental and simulation studies on fracture of laminated glass having polyvinyl butyral and ethyl vinyl acetate inter-layers of different critical thicknesses due to impact load. Glass Technol. Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part A. 58(6), 169–178 (2017)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Vedrtnam, A.: Comparative evaluation of novel thermo-chemical treatment methods for improved impact performance of laminated glass. Proc. Inst. Mech. Eng. C. (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1177/0954406218771995
  7. 7.
    Hooper, P.A., Sukhram, R.A.M., Blackman, B.R.K., Dear, J.P.: On the blast resistance of laminated glass. Int. J. Solids Struct. 49(6), 899–918 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hooper, P.A., Sukhram, R.A.M., Blackman, B.R.K., Dear, J.P.: On the blast resistance of laminated glass. Int. J. Solids Struct. 15, 309–323 (2011)Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Vedrtnam, A., Pawar, S.J.: Experimental and simulation studies on fatigue behavior of laminated glass having polyvinyl butyral and ethyl vinyl acetate interlayers. Fatigue Fract. Eng. Mater. Struct. 41(6), 1437–1446 (2018)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Vedrtnam, A., and Pawar, S.J: Comparative evaluation and regression analysis of PVB, EVA, and SG inter layered laminated glass hardness. 2nd international conference on recent innovations in science, engineering, and management, 22 November 2015. JNU, New Delhi, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Sharma, S.K., Vedrtnam, A. and Kumar, S.: A review on acoustical properties measurement methods and a proposed novel method for acoustical characterization of laminated glass used in automotive applications” International Journal of Mechanical and Production Engineering Research and Development, 7 (4), 275–290 (2017)Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Vedrtnam, A., Pawar, S.J.: Experimental and simulation studies on acoustical characterization of laminated safety glass. Glass Technol. Eur. J. Glass Sci. Technol. Part A. 59(2), 58–70 (2018).  https://doi.org/10.13036/17533546.59.2.008 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Vedrtnam, A.: Experimental and simulation studies on delamination strength of Laminated Glass composites having Polyvinyl Butyral and Ethyl Vinyl Acetate Inter-layers of Different Critical Thicknesses. Defence Technology. (2018).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dt.2018.02.002
  14. 14.
    Bedon, C.: Structural glass systems under fire: overview of design issues, experimental research and developments. Adv Civil. Eng. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2120570
  15. 15.
    Behr, R.A., Belarbi, A., Brown, A.T.: Seismic performance of architectural glass in a storefront wall system. Earthquake Spectra. 11(3), 367–391 (1995)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Serafinaviciusa, T., Lebeta, J.P., Loutera, C., Lenkimasc, T., Kuranovas, A.: Long-term laminated glass four point bending test with PVB, EVA and SG inter-layers at different temperatures. Procedia Engineering. 57, 1877–7058 (2013)Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Santarsiero, M., Bedon, C., Louter, C.: Experimental and numerical analysis of thick embedded laminated glass connections. Compos. Struct. (2018),  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compstruct.2018.01.002
  18. 18.
    Jaśkowiec, J., Pluciński, P., Stankiewicz, A., Cichoń, C.: Three-dimensional modelling of laminated glass bending on two-dimensional in-plane mesh. Composites Part B. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.03.008
  19. 19.
    Samieian, M.A., Cormie, D., Smith, D., Wholey, W., Blackman, B.R.K., Dear, J.P., Hooper, P.A.: Temperature effects on laminated glass at high rate. International Journal of Impact Engineering. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijimpeng.2017.09.001
  20. 20.
    Manuel, L., Aenllea, F. Pelayoa and Ismael, G.: Calculation of displacements and stresses in laminated glass beams under dynamic loadings using an effective Young modulus. Procedia Eng. 199, 1405–1410 (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.proeng.2017.09.379
  21. 21.
    Castori, G., Speranzini, E.: Structural analysis of failure behavior of laminated glass. Composites Part B. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compositesb.2017.05.062
  22. 22.
    Pelayo, F., Lamela-Rey, M.J., Muniz-Calvente, M., López-Aenlle, M., Álvarez-Vázquez, A., Fernández-Canteli, A.: Study of the time-temperature-dependent behaviour of PVB: application to laminated glass elements. Thin-Walled Struct. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tws.2017.06.030
  23. 23.
    Mohagheghian, I., Wang, Y., Jiang, L., Zhang, X., Guo, X., Yan, Y., Kinloch, A.J., Dear, J.P.: Quasi-static bending and low velocity impact performance of monolithic and laminated glass windows employing chemically strengthened glass. European Journal of Mechanics / A Solids. (2017).  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.euromechsol.2017.01.006
  24. 24.
    Amadio, C., Bedon, C.: An equivalent thickness for buckling verification of laminated glass panels under in-plane shear loads. Journal of Civil Engineering and Science. 2(3), 108–123 (2013)Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Foraboschi, P.: Hybrid laminated-glass plate: design and assessment. Compos. Struct. 106, 250–263 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Amadio, C., Bedon, C.: Buckling of laminated glass elements in out-of-plane bending, engineering structures. Eng. Struct. 32, 3780–3788 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Hooper, J.: On the bending of architectural laminated glass. Int. J. Mech. Sci. 15, 309–323 (1973)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Behr, R., Minor, J., Norville, H.: Structural behavior of architectural laminated glass. J. Struct. Eng. 119, 202–222 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Edel, M.: The effect of temperature on the bending of laminated glass units. PhD thesis, Texas A&M University, Department of Civil Engineering, College Station, Texas; 1997Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Norville, H., King, K., Swoord, J.: Behavior and strength of laminated glass. J. Eng. Mech. 124, 46–53 (1998)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Asik, M., Tezcan, S.: A mathematical model for the behavior of laminated glass beams. Comput. Struct. 83, 1742–1753 (2005)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Louter, C., Belis, J., Veer, F., Lebet, J.P.: Durability of SG-laminated reinforced glass beams, effects of temperature, thermal cycling, humidity and load-duration. Constr. Build. Mater. 27, 280–292 (2012)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Belis, J., Depauw, J., Callewaert, D., Delince, D., Van, R.: Failure mechanisms and residual capacity of annealed glass/SGP laminated beams at room temperature. Eng. Fail. Anal. 16(6), 1775–2008 (2009)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Quenett, R.: The mechanical behavior of laminated safety glass under bending and impact stresses, Forgetragen auf dem DVM-Tag, Wurzburg (Germany), Manuskript-Eing., 1967Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Biolzi, L., Cattaneo, S., Rosati, G.: Progressive damage and fracture of laminated glass beams. Constr. Build. Mater. 24, 577–458 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Ivanov, I.V.: Analysis, modeling, and optimization of laminated glasses as plane beam. Int. J. Solids Struct. 43(22), 6887–6907 (2006)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Galuppi, L., Carfagni, G.R.: The effective thickness of laminated glass, Inconsistency of the formulation in a proposal of EN-standards. Composites Part B. 55, 109–118 (2013)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Calderone, I, Davies, P.S., Bennison, S.J., Xiaokun, H., and Gang, L.: Effective laminate thickness for the design of laminated glass. Glass Processing Days 2009, Tampere, FinlandGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Galuppi, L., Carfagni, G.R.: Enhanced effective thickness of multi-layered laminated glass. Composites Part B. 64, 202–213 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Shelton and Mauro. Simple model for predicting the post-fracture Behavior of laminated Glass, XXV A.T.I.V 2010 International Conference, Parma, Italy, November 2010Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Norville, H.S., Minor, J.E.: Glass strength evaluation using ring-on-ring tests. In: Institute for Disaster Research. Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX (1984)Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fessler, H., Fricker, D.C.: A theoretical analysis of the ring-on-ring loading disk test. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 67(9), 582–588 (1984)Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Min’ko, N.I., Vladimir Nartsev, M.: Factors affecting the strength of the glass (review). Middle-East J. Sci. Res. 18(11), 1616–1624 (2013)Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Australian Ceramic Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied MechanicsMotilal Nehru National Institute of Technology AllahabadAllahabadIndia
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical EngineeringInvertis UniversityBareillyIndia

Personalised recommendations