Journal of the Indian Institute of Science

, Volume 98, Issue 3, pp 247–260 | Cite as

Recent Advancements in 3-D Structure Determination of Bacteriophages: from Negative Stain to CryoEM

  • Sayani Das
  • Amar N. Ghosh
Review Article


For many years, X-ray crystallography has been exclusively used by structural biologists for resolving virus structures and viral proteins at atomic resolution level. However, the discovery of electron microscopy, especially Cryo-electron microscopy (cryoEM), has enabled us to visualise the detailed structural features of biological macromolecules in a more accurate way. In recent years, cryoEM has made sudden progress in its use due to high-end microscopes, improved detectors and modernised software. It is now possible to get near-atomic resolution three-dimensional viral maps using cryoEM. Among viruses, the bacterial viruses or bacteriophages are the most fascinating objects for the structural biologists as they are highly symmetrical particles. The development of cryoEM has also made it easy to determine the structures of these highly symmetrical macromolecules at near-atomic resolution.


Bacteriophage Electron microscopy CryoEM Negative stain 


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Copyright information

© Indian Institute of Science 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Division of Electron MicroscopyICMR-National Institute of Cholera and Enteric diseasesKolkataIndia

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