Advertisement

Biosorption of Cadmium from Aqueous Solution by Free and Immobilized Dry Biomass of Chlorella vulgaris

  • Mostafa El-SheekhEmail author
  • Sabha El Sabagh
  • Ghada Abou El-Souod
  • Amany Elbeltagy
Research paper
  • 120 Downloads

Abstract

Biosorption by algae is an effective process for the removal of heavy metals from the aqueous solutions. The present work deals with the biosorption of Cd(II) by Chlorella vulgaris in a batch system. The biosorption efficiency of Cd(II) removal was studied at different pH (3–8), initial metal concentrations (20–100 ppm), agitation time (5–120 min.), agitation speed (50–250 rpm), and biomass dosage (0.01–0.1 g/50 ml of metal solution). The optimum conditions for maximum biosorption capacity for C. vulgaris were at pH 6, initial Cd(II) concentration 75 mg/l, biomass dosage 0.08 g/50 ml metal solution, temperature 25 °C, agitation speed 250 rpm, and agitation time 30 min. The cadmium removal efficiency of the raw and pretreated algal biomass was studied under the optimum conditions. The results showed that pretreatment with acetic acid gave 99.346% as compared with raw biomass. Different algal weights (0.2, 0.15, 0.1, 0.05, and 0.025 g) were immobilized with 10 ml of 4% calcium alginate. The results showed that the highest cadmium biosorption efficiency was 76.448% for 0.025 g as compared with the control. The biosorption mechanisms were examined by Fourier-transform infrared analysis and scanning electron microscopy for raw and pretreated algal biomasses before and after cadmium biosorption. It was found that hydroxyl, amide with hydrogen bond, and carbonyl stretching in carboxyl groups played an important role in biosorption.

Article Highlights

  • Removal of heavy metals in aqueous solutions

  • Biosorption of Cd(II) by Chlorella vulgaris in a batch system

  • Immobilization of Chlorella vulgaris increased the biosorption capacity

  • Culture conditions and environmental conditions affected biosorption capacity

Keywords

Chlorella vulgaris Heavy metals Cadmium Biosorption Pretreatment Immobilization Calcium alginate 

References

  1. Abdel-Razek AS, Shaaban MT, Mahmoud SA, Kandeel EM (2015) Bioaccumulation of Cs137 by immobilized bacterial species isolated from radioactive wastewater. J Appl Environ Microbiol 3(5):112–118Google Scholar
  2. Ahluwalia SS, Goyal D (2007) Microbial and plant derived biomass for removal of heavy metals from wastewater: a review. J Bioresour Technol 98(12):2243–2257Google Scholar
  3. Aksu Z, Dönmez G (2006) Binary biosorption of cadmium(II) and nickel(II) onto dried Chlorella vulgaris: co-ion effect on mono-component isotherm parameters. J Process Biochem 41(4):860–868Google Scholar
  4. Al Fakih AAM, Ali MI, Gharieb MM (2011) Biosorption of lead(II) and Cobalt(II) from aqueous solutions and industrial effluents by some fungi. Ph.D. Thesis, University of Menoufia, Egypt, 66Google Scholar
  5. Ali AA, Hadeel JA, Amal AA, Gehan E, Nadine MSM (2014) Biosorption of copper ions from an aqueous solutions by Spirluina platensis biomass. Arab J Chem 7(1):57–62Google Scholar
  6. Alluri K, Ronda SR, Scttalluri VS, Bondili JS, Suryanarayana V, Venkateshwar P (2007) Biosorption: an eco-friendly alternative for heavy metal removal. Afr J Biotechnol 6(25):2924–2931Google Scholar
  7. Anastopoulos I, Kyzas GZ (2015) Progress in batch biosorption of heavy metals onto algae. J Mol Liq 209:77–86Google Scholar
  8. Ansari MI, Masood F, Malik A (2011) Bacterial biosorption: a technique for remediation of heavy metals. In: Ahmad I, Ahmad F, Pichtel J (eds) Microbes and microbial technology: agricultural and environmental applications. Springer, New York, pp 283–291Google Scholar
  9. APHA (2005) Standard methods for the examination of water and wastewater, 21st edn. American Public Health Association, Washington, DCGoogle Scholar
  10. Awofolu OR, Mbolekwa Z, Mtshemla V, Fatoki OS (2005) Levels of trace metals in water and sediment from Thyme River and its effects on an irrigated farmland. Water South Afr 31(1):87–94Google Scholar
  11. Bishnoi NR, Kumar R, Kumar S, Rani S (2006) Biosorption of Cr(III) from aqueous solution using algal biomass Spirogyra spp. J Hazard Mater 145(1–2):142–147Google Scholar
  12. Cabuk A, Ilhan S, Filik C, Caliskan F (2005) Pb+2 biosorption by pretreated fungal biomass. Turk J Biol 29(1):23–28Google Scholar
  13. Cheng J, Yin W, Chang Z, Lundholm N, Jiang Z (2017) Biosorption capacity and kinetics of cadmium(II) on live and dead Chlorella vulgaris. J Appl Phycol 29(1):211–221Google Scholar
  14. Crini G, Lichtfouse E, Wilson LD, Morin-Crini N (2019) Conventional and non-conventional adsorbents for wastewater treatment. Environ Chem Lett 17:195–213Google Scholar
  15. Cruz CCV, Da-Costa ACA, Henrique’s CA, Luna AS (2004) Kinetic modeling and equilibrium studies during cadmium biosorption by dead Sargassum sp., biomass. J Bioresour Technol 91(3):249–257Google Scholar
  16. Demey H, Vincent T, Guibal E (2018) A novel algal-based sorbent for heavy metal removal. Chem Eng J 332:582–595Google Scholar
  17. Edris G, Alhamed Y, Alzahrani A (2014) Biosorption of cadmium and lead from aqueous solutions by Chlorella vulgaris biomass: equilibrium and kinetic study. Arab J Sci Eng 39(1):87–93Google Scholar
  18. Ghoneim MM, El- Desoky HS, El-Moselhy KM, Amer A, Abou El- Naga EH, Mohamedein LI, Al-Prol AE (2014) Removal of cadmium from aqueous solution using marine green algae, Ulva lactuca. Egypt J Aquat Res 40(3):235–242Google Scholar
  19. Goher ME, Abd El-Monem AM, Abdel-Satar AM, Ali MH, Hussian AM, Napiórkowska-Krzebietke A (2016) Biosorption of some toxic metals from aqueous solution using non-living algal cells of Chlorella vulgaris. J Elementol 21(3):703–714Google Scholar
  20. Hashim MA, Chu KH (2004) Biosorption of cadmium by brown, green and red seaweeds. J Chem Eng 97:249–255Google Scholar
  21. Holan ZR, Volesky B (1994) Biosorption of lead and nickel by biomass of marine algae. J Biotechnol Bioeng 43(11):1001–1009Google Scholar
  22. Ibrahim WM (2011) Biosorption of heavy metal ions from aqueous solution by red macroalgae. J Hazarad Mater 192(3):1827–1835Google Scholar
  23. Kaplan D (2013) Absorption and adsorption of heavy metals by microalgae. In: Amos R, Qiang H (eds) Handbook of micro algal culture: applied phycology and biotechnology, vol 602, 2nd edn. Wiley, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  24. Karthikeyan S, Balasubramanian R, Iyer CSP (2007) Evaluation of the marine algae Ulva fasciata and Sargassum sp. for the biosorption of Cu(II) from aqueous solutions. J Bioresour Technol 98(2):452–455Google Scholar
  25. Kuhl A, Lorenzen H (1964) Handling and culturing of Chlorella. In: Prescott DM (ed) Methods in cell physiology, vol 1. Academic Press, New York, pp 152–187Google Scholar
  26. Kumar PY, King P, Prasad VSRK (2006) Zinc biosorption on Tectona grandis L.f. leaves biomass: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Chem Eng J 124(1):63–70Google Scholar
  27. Lacerda ECM, dos Passos Galluzzi Baltazar M, dos Reis TA, do Nascimento CAO, Côrrea B, Gimenes LJ (2019) Copper biosorption from an aqueous solution by the dead biomass of Penicillium ochrochloron. Environ Monit Assess 191:247Google Scholar
  28. Lagoa R, Rodrigus JR (2007) Evaluation of dry protonated calcium alginate beads for biosorption applications and study of lead uptake. J Appl Biochem Biotechnol 143(2):115–128Google Scholar
  29. Li YH, Du Q, Peng X, Wang D, Wang Z, Xia Y, Wei B (2011) Physico-chemical characteristics and lead biosorption properties of Enteromorpha prolifera. Colloids Surf B 85(2):316–322Google Scholar
  30. Luo JM, Xiao X, Luo SL (2010) Biosorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions by industrial fungus Rhizopus cohnii. Trans Nano Ferr Met Soc China 20:1104–1111Google Scholar
  31. Mack C, Wilhelmi B, Duncan JR, Burgess JE (2007) Biosorption of precious metals. Biotechnol Adv 25(3):264–271Google Scholar
  32. Marandi R, Doulati F, Amir H (2010) Biosorption of Lead II and Zinc II ions by pre-treated biomass of Phanerochaete chrysosporium. Int J Min Environ Issues 1(1):9–16Google Scholar
  33. Moo-Young M (ed) (2011) Industrial biotechnology and commodity products, comprehensive, biotechnology, vol 3, 2nd edn. Elsevier, B.V., AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  34. Naiya TK, Bhattacharya AK, Mandal S, Das SK (2009) The sorption of lead(II) ions on rice husk ash. J Hazard Mater 163(2–3):1254–1264Google Scholar
  35. Nassab SMH, Naji A, Yousefzadi M (2017) Kinetics and equilibrium studies on biosorption of cadmium(II) from aqueous solution by Gracilaria corticata and agar extraction algal waste. J Appl Phycol 29(4):2107–2116Google Scholar
  36. Nessim RB, Bassiouny AR, Zaki HR, Moawad MN, Kandeel KM (2011) Biosorption of lead and cadmium using marine algae. J Chem Ecol 27(6):579–594Google Scholar
  37. Nilanjana D, Vimala R, Karthika P (2008) Biosorption of heavy metals: an overview. Ind J Biotechnol 7:159–169Google Scholar
  38. Omar HA, Abdel-Razek AS, Sayed MS (2010) Biosorption of cesium-134 from aqueous solutions using immobilized marine algae: equilibrium and kinetics. J Nat Sci 8(11):214–221Google Scholar
  39. Ozsoy HD, Kumbur H, Saha B, Van Leeuwen JH (2008) Use of Rhizopus oligosporus produced from food processing wastewater as a biosorbent for Cu(II) ions removal from the aqueous solutions. J Bioresour Technol 99(11):4943–4948Google Scholar
  40. Patel GG, Doshi HV, Thakur MC (2016) Biosorption and equilibrium study of copper by marine seaweeds from North West Coast of India. J Environ Sci Toxicol Food Technol 10(7):54–64Google Scholar
  41. Prakash BS, Kumar SV (2013) Batch removal of heavy metals by biosorption onto marine algae—equilibrium and kinetic studies. Int J ChemTech Res 5(3):1254–1262Google Scholar
  42. Raize O, Argaman Y, Yannai S (2004) Mechanisms of biosorption of different heavy metals by brown marine macroalgae. J Biotechnol Bioeng 87(4):451–458Google Scholar
  43. Raj KK, Sardar UR, Bhargavi E, Devi I, Bhunia B, Tiwari ON (2018) Advances in exopolysaccharides based bioremediation of heavy metals in soil and water: a critical review. Carbohydr Polymer 199:253–364Google Scholar
  44. Romera E, González F, Ballester A, Blázquuez ML, Muňoz JA (2007) Comparative study of biosorption of heavy metals using different types of algae. J Bioresour Technol 98:3344–3353Google Scholar
  45. Saleh B (2017) Cadmium biosorption investigation from aqueous solutions with Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta) and Padina pavonica (phaeophyta) seaweeds. J Stress Physiol Biochem 13(4):81–87Google Scholar
  46. Sekhar KC, Kamala CT, Chary NS, Anjaneyulu Y (2003) Removal of heavy metals using a plant biomass with reference to environmental control. Int J Miner Proc 68(1–4):37–45Google Scholar
  47. Sun J, Ji Y, Cai F, Li J (2012) Heavy metal removal trough biosorptive pathways. In: Sharma SK, Sanghi R (eds) Advances in water treatment and pollution prevention. Springer, New York, pp 95–145Google Scholar
  48. Suzuki Y, Kametani T, Maruyama T (2005) Removal of heavy metals from aqueous solution by nonliving Ulva seaweed as biosorbent. J Water Res 39(9):1803–1808Google Scholar
  49. Verma SK, Singh K, Gupta AK, Pandey VC, Trivedi P, Verma RK, Patra DD (2014) Aromatic grasses for phytomanagement of coal fly ash hazards. J Ecol Eng 73:425–428Google Scholar
  50. Volesky B (1992) Removal of heavy metals by biosorption. In: Ladisch MR, Bose A (eds) Harnessing biotechnology for the 21st century. Journal of American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp 462–466Google Scholar
  51. Wang J, Chen C (2009) Biosorbents for heavy metals removal and their future. Biotechnol Adv 27(2):195–226Google Scholar
  52. Zhang L, Zhao L, Yu Y, Chen C (1998) Removal of Pb+2 from aqueous solution by non-living Rhizopus nigricans. J Water Res 32(5):1437–1444Google Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Botany Department, Faculty of ScienceTanta UniversityTantaEgypt
  2. 2.Botany and Microbiology Department, Faculty of ScienceMenoufia UniversityShibin ElkomEgypt

Personalised recommendations