Modelling on the Removal of Dye from Industrial Wastewater Using Surface Improved Enteromorpha intestinalis

  • Anbalagan Saravanan
  • Ponnusamy Senthil KumarEmail author
  • Ponnambalam Ragini Yaashikaa
  • Selvaraj Kanmani
  • Ravi Hamsha Varthine
  • Chinakannu Marimuthu Mathan Muthu
  • Dinakarkumar Yuvaraj
Research paper


Environmental friendly activated carbon with microporous structures have been synthesized by surface modification procedure using concentrated H2SO4. Various factors affecting the adsorption properties of methylene blue (MB) dye onto algae—raw Enteromorpha intestinalis (REI) and sulphuric acid modified E. intestinalis (SMEI)—have been discussed, such as time, pH, biosorbent dose, MB dye concentration, and temperature. FTIR spectroscopy, SEM, and TGA analysis investigated the newly synthesized biosorbent. The relationship between the structure and adsorption properties of E. intestinalis had been discussed based on the experimental and theoretical data. Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of the adsorbent—REI and SMEI—was calculated as 76.28 and 95.27 mg/g, respectively. The batch data followed Freundlich isotherm model amongst four isotherms and pseudo-second-order rate equation. The results exhibit that adsorption of MB dye onto REI and SMEI was multilayer adsorption. Thermodynamic parameters revealed spontaneity of adsorption and the nature was chemisorption. Inferable from attributes of minimal effort, high-effectiveness, and vitality sparing, E. intestinalis can be utilized as a productive adsorbent for the removal of dyes from industrial wastewater.

Graphical Abstract

Article Highlights

  • A novel modified algae material—E. intestinalis—was prepared for the adsorption of MB dye.

  • The optimum adsorption conditions of E. intestinalis towards MB dye are investigated.

  • Adsorption behaviour follows Freundlich isotherm and pseudo-second order kinetic model.

  • Thermodynamic study demonstrates that the present study is spontaneous, exothermic, and physical.


Algae Adsorption Isotherm Kinetics Removal Modelling 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

Authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest for this research article.


  1. AL-Othman ZA, Inamuddin, Naushad M (2011) Adsorption thermodynamics of trichloroacetic acid herbicide on polypyrrole Th(IV) phosphate composite cation-exchanger. Chem Eng J 169:38–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asghar A, Raman AAA, Daud WMAW (2015) Advanced oxidation processes for in situ production of hydrogen peroxide/hydroxyl radical for textile wastewater treatment: a review. J Clean Prod 87:826–838CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bilal M, Asgher M, Shahid M, Bhatti HN (2016) Characteristic features and dye degrading capability of agar–agar gel immobilized manganese peroxidise. Int J Biol Macromol 86:728–740CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Chavaco LC, Arcos CA, Prato-Garcia D (2017) Decolorization of reactive dyes in solar pond reactors: perspectives and challenges for the textile industry. J Environ Manag 198:203–212CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen X, Deng Q, Lin S, Du C, Zhao S, Hu Y, Yang Z, Lyu Y, Han J (2017) A new approach for risk assessment of aggregate dermal exposure to banned azo dyes in textiles. Regul Toxicol Pharmacol 91:173–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chiong T, Lau SY, Lek ZH, Boon YK, Danquah MK (2016) Enzymatic treatment of methyl orange dye in synthetic wastewater by plant-based peroxidase enzymes. J Environ Chem Eng 4:2500–2509CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dotto GL, Pinto LA (2013) Adsorption of food dyes onto chitosan: optimization process and kinetic. Carbohydr Polym 84:231–238CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Duan XH, Srinivasakannan C, Wang X, Wang F, Liu XY (2017) Synthesis of activated carbon fibers from cotton by microwave induced H3PO4 activation. J Taiwan Inst Chem 70:374–381CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dubinin MM, Radushkevich LV (1947) Equation of the characteristic curve of activated charcoal. Chem Zentralblatt 1:875–890Google Scholar
  10. Fajardo AS, Martins RC, Silva DR, Martinez-Huitle CA, Quinta-Ferreira RM (2017) Dye wastewaters treatment using batch and recirculation flow electrocoagulation systems. J Electroanal Chem 801:30–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Fatima M, Farooq R, Lindstrom RW, Saeed M (2017) A review on biocatalytic decomposition of azo dyes and electrons recovery. J Mol Liq 246:275–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Feng Z, Yu J, Kong J, Wang T (2016) A novel porous Al2O3 layer/AgNPs–Hemin composite for degradation of azo dyes under visible and UV irradiation. Chem Eng J 294:236–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Freundlich HMF (1906) Over the adsorption in solution. J Phys Chem 57:385–470Google Scholar
  14. Gil A, Assis FCC, Albeniz S, Korili SA (2011) Removal of dyes from wastewaters by adsorption on pillared clays. Chem Eng J 168:1032–1040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Guo J, Zhang Q, Cai Z, Zhao K (2016) Preparation and dye filtration property of electrospun polyhydroxybutyrate–calcium alginate/carbon nanotubes composite nanofibrous filtration membrane. Sep Purif Technol 161:69–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gupta VK, Kumar R, Nayak A, Saleh TA, Barakat MA (2013) Adsorptive removal of dyes from aqueous solution onto carbon nanotubes: a review. Adv Colloid Interface Sci 193:24–31CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gurses A, Dogar C, Yalcin M, Acikyildiz M, Bayrak R, Karaca S (2006) The adsorption kinetics of the cationic dye methylene blue onto clay. J Hazard Mater 131:217–228CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Ho YS, McKay G (1999) Pseudo-second order model for sorption processes. Process Biochem 34:451–465CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jadhav AJ, Holkar CR, Karekar SE (2015) Ultrasound assisted manufacturing of paraffin wax nanoemulsions: process optimization. Ultrason Sonochem 23:201–207CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Jothirani R, Kumar PS, Saravanan A, Narayan AS, Dutta A (2016) Ultrasonic modified corn pith for the sequestration of dye from aqueous solution. J Ind Eng Chem 39:162–175CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Kaith BS, Dhiman J, Bhatia JK (2015) Preparation and application of grafted Holarrhena antidycentrica fiber as cation exchanger for adsorption of dye from aqueous solution. J Environ Chem Eng 3:1038–1046CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kausar A, Iqbal M, Javed A, Aftab K, Nazli Z, Bhatti HN, Nouren S (2018) Dyes adsorption using clay and modified clay: a review. J Mol Liq 256:395–407CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kono H, Kusumoto R (2015) Removal of anionic dyes in aqueous solution by flocculation with cellulose ampholytes. J Water Process Eng 7:83–93CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Kumar PS, Ramalingam S, Sathishkumar K (2011) Removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution by activated carbon prepared from cashew nut shell as a new low-cost adsorbent. Korean J Chem Eng 28:149–155CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Kumar PS, Fernando PSA, Ahmed RT, Srinath R, Priyadharshini M, Vignesh AM, Thanjiappan A (2014a) Effect of temperature on the adsorption of methylene blue dye onto sulfuric acid–treated orange peel. Chem Eng Commun 201:1526–1547CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Kumar PS, Sivaranjanee R, Vinothini U, Raghavi M, Rajasekar K, Ramakrishnan K (2014b) Adsorption of dye onto raw and surface modified tamarind seeds: isotherms, process design, kinetics and mechanism. Desalin Water Treat 52:2620–2633CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Kumar PS, Palaniyappan M, Priyadharshini M, Vignesh AM, Thanjiappan A, Fernando PSA, Ahmed RT, Srinath R (2014c) Adsorption of basic dye onto raw and surface-modified agricultural waste. Environ Prog Sustain Energy 33:87–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kumar PS, Varjani SJ, Suganya S (2018) Treatment of dye wastewater using an ultrasonic aided nanoparticle stacked activated carbon: kinetic and isotherm modelling. Bioresour Technol 250:716–722CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Lagergren S (1898) About the theory of so-called adsorption of soluble substance. Kungliga Sven Vetenskapsakademiens Handl 24:1–39Google Scholar
  30. Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40:1361–1403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Lonappan L, Rouissi T, Das RK, Brar SK, Ramirez AA, Verma M, Surampalli RY, Valero JR (2016) Adsorption of methylene blue on biochar microparticles derived from different waste materials. Waste Manag 49:537–544CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Low MJD (1960) Kinetics of chemisorption of gases on solids. Chem Rev 60:267–312CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Manikandan G, Kumar PS, Saravanan A (2018) Modelling and analysis on the removal of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using physically/chemically modified Ceiba pentandra seeds. J Ind Eng Chem 62:446–461CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Miyah Y, Lahrichi A, Idrissi M, Khalil A, Zerrouq F (2018) Adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions onto walnut shells powder: equilibrium and kinetic studies. Surf Interfaces 11:74–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Mouni L, Belkhiri L, Bollinger J-C, Bouzaza A, Assadi A, Tirri A, Dahmoune F, Madani K, Remini H (2018) Removal of methylene blue from aqueous solutions by adsorption on kaolin: kinetic and equilibrium studies. Appl Clay Sci 153:38–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Munagapati VS, Kim D (2016) Adsorption of anionic azo dye congo red from aqueous solution by cationic modified orange peel powder. J Mol Liq 220:540–548CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Nakata H, Uehara K, Goto Y, Fukumura M, Shimasaki H, Takikawa K (2014) Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in oysters and sediments from the Yatsushiro Sea, Japan: comparison of potential risks among PAHs, dioxins and dioxin-like compounds in benthic organisms. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 99:61–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Pang J, Fu F, Ding Z, Lu J, Li N, Tang B (2017) Adsorption behaviors of methylene blue from aqueous solution on mesoporous birnessite. J Taiwan Inst Chem Eng 77:168–176CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Salleh MAM, Mahmoud DK, Karim WAWA, Idris A (2011) Cationic and anionic dye adsorption by agricultural solid wastes: a comprehensive review. Desalination 280:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sham AYW, Notley SM (2018) Adsorption of organic dyes from aqueous solutions using surfactant exfoliated graphene. J Environ Chem Eng 6:495–504CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Shuhong Y, Meiping Z, Hong Y, Han W, Shan X, Yan L, Jihiu W (2014) Biosorption of Cu(2+), Pb(2+) and Cr(6+) by a novel exopolysaccharide from Arthrobacter ps-5. Carbohydr Polym 101:50–56CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Suganya S, Kumar PS, Saravanan A, Rajan PS, Ravikumar C (2017) Computation of adsorption parameters for the removal of dye from wastewater by microwave assisted sawdust: theoretical and experimental analysis. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol 50:45–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Sun C, Zhang J, Ma Q, Chen Y (2015) Human health and ecological risk assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in drinking source water from a large mixed-use reservoir. Int J Environ Res Public Health 12:13956–13969CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Temkin MJ, Pyzhev V (1940) Recent modifications to Langmuir isotherms. Acta Physicochim URSS 12:217–225Google Scholar
  45. Tharaneedhar V, Kumar PS, Saravanan A, Ravikumar C, Jaikumar V (2017) Prediction and interpretation of adsorption parameters for the sequestration of methylene blue dye from aqueous solution using microwave assisted corncob activated carbon. Sustain Mater Technol 11:1–11Google Scholar
  46. Tong DS, Wu CW, Adebajo MO, Jin GC, Yu WH, Ji SF, Zhou CH (2018) Adsorption of methylene blue from aqueous solution onto porous cellulose-derived carbon/montmorillonite nanocomposites. Appl Clay Sci 161:256–264CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Travlou NA, Kyzas GZ, Lazaridis NK, Deliyanni EA (2013) Graphite oxide/chitosan composite for reactive dye removal. Chem Eng J 217:256–265CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Wan CC, Jiao Y, Qiang TG, Li J (2017) Cellulose-derived carbon aerogels supported goethite (–FeOOH) nanoneedles and nanoflowers for electromagnetic interference shielding. Carbohydr Polym 156:427–434CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wang S, Zhu ZH (2006) Characterisation and environmental application of an Australian natural zeolite for basic dye removal from aqueous solution. J Hazard Mater 136:946–952CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Xiao H, Zhao T, Li C-H, Li M-Y (2017) Eco-friendly approaches for dyeing multiple type of fabrics with cationic reactive dyes. J Clean Prod 165:1499–1507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Zahrim AY, Hilal N (2013) Treatment of highly concentrated dye solution by coagulation/flocculation–sand filtration and nanofiltration. Water Resour Ind 3:23–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Zhai X, Xia J, Zhang Y (2017) Integrated approach of hydrological and water quality dynamic simulation for anthropogenic disturbance assessment in the Huai River Basin, China. Sci Total Environ 598:749–764CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Zhang S, Wang Z, Zhang Y, Pan H, Tao L (2016) Adsorption of methylene blue on organosolv lignin from rice straw. Procedia Environ Sci 31:3–11CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhang J, Li F, Sun Q (2018) Rapid and selective adsorption of cationic dyes by a unique metal–organic framework with decorated pore surface. Appl Surf Sci 440:1219–1226CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Zhu M-X, Lee L, Wang H-H, Wang Z (2007) Removal of an anionic dye by adsorption/precipitation processes using alkaline white mud. J Hazard Mater 149:735–741CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Anbalagan Saravanan
    • 1
  • Ponnusamy Senthil Kumar
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • Ponnambalam Ragini Yaashikaa
    • 2
  • Selvaraj Kanmani
    • 4
  • Ravi Hamsha Varthine
    • 4
  • Chinakannu Marimuthu Mathan Muthu
    • 5
  • Dinakarkumar Yuvaraj
    • 4
  1. 1.Department of BiotechnologyRajalakshmi Engineering CollegeChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringSSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  3. 3.SSN-Centre for Radiation, Environmental Science and Technology (SSN-CREST)SSN College of EngineeringChennaiIndia
  4. 4.Department of BiotechnologyVel Tech High Tech Dr Rangarajan Dr Sakunthala Engineering CollegeChennaiIndia
  5. 5.Department of BiotechnologySRM Institute of Science and TechnologyChennaiIndia

Personalised recommendations