Numerical Simulation of a Severe Dust Storm over Ahvaz Using the HYSPLIT Model
In this paper, numerical simulation of a severe dust storm over Ahvaz on 16–18 June 2016 was performed using the HYSPLIT. To that end, the HYSPLIT model has been configured for different model setups to determine the most desirable suite of parameters to represent the measured concentrations better. Among several model parameters, meteorological dataset (GDAS1.0 and GDAS0.5), friction velocity (P10F) and particle numbers (NumPar) were detected as the most influential parameters on the simulation results. Accordingly, with P10F = 0.6, NumPar = 5000, and GDAS1.0 configurations, the model has reproduced the most precise results, and the correlation coefficient between the measured and the simulated PM10 concentration was as high as 0.9. Since the threshold friction velocity influences the results significantly, it is suggested to calculate the P10F coefficient for each distinct dust storm meticulously. Once the best model parameters have been obtained, the HYSPLIT has been run for 33 possible sources separately to estimate the contribution from each sub-region to the levels of the measured PM10 concentration of Ahvaz during 16–18 June 2016. According to the results, central Iraq, northern Syria, western Iraq, and Al-Hawzieh/Al-Azim wetland account for 71, 19, 6, and 4%, respectively.
A severe dust storm in 2016 over Ahvaz city was simulated quantitatively.
Validation of simulation results was accomplished using ground-based data and satellite observations.
Determination of the Middle East dust origins contribution in the dust storm was performed.
Western and central parts of Iraq were detected as the main sources of the dust storm.
KeywordsHYSPLIT Source apportionment Middle East dust storms Ahvaz Numerical simulation Satellite observation
The authors are grateful to the Atmospheric Research Center (ARC) of Iran University of Science and Technology for its support to this research. The authors also acknowledge the NOAA Air Resources Laboratory (ARL) and NCEI for the provision of the HYSPLIT transport and dispersion model, and hourly meteorological observation data, respectively. The MODIS and OMI products were acquired through GIOVANNI online software of NASA. We also would like to express our thanks to Mr. Alireza Azarnia of DOE- Khuzestan branch for providing the hourly PM10 concentration data.
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