International Journal of Environmental Research

, Volume 13, Issue 1, pp 213–222 | Cite as

Improvement of the Textile Industry Wastewater Decolorization Process Using Capillary Microreactor Technology

  • Ana Dajic
  • Marina MihajlovicEmail author
  • Stefan Mandic-Rajcevic
  • Dusan Mijin
  • Mica Jovanovic
  • Jovan Jovanovic
Technical note


Dyes are an important class of pollutants because large amounts are often found in the environment as a result of their extensive industrial use. Traditional wastewater treatment methods often lead to high energy costs, formation of by-products, and the production of sludge. This paper analyzes the possibility of using a new, sustainable approach to water decolorization with reduced consumption of chemicals. In microreactor experiments, reactant molar ratios, volumetric flow rate, and microreactor length and diameter were varied. The obtained results showed that batch decolorization required 250–500 times higher molar ratios to achieve comparable decolorization (70–90%) and at least three times longer residence time. Microreactor experiments demonstrated that higher microreactor lengths and molar ratios influence positively the decolorization process, although satisfactory results are also achieved with medium microreactor lengths and lower molar ratios. Higher fluids velocities contribute to the decolorization process, but the best results were obtained using a medium velocity (in a 5.8 m microreactor system) to achieve the highest possible mixing intensity and long enough residence time. Microreactor systems have achieved significantly better decolorization results, considering any combination of microreactor length, molar ratio, diameter, flow rate, and residence time, than a batch system. Thus, a medium length microreactor system, with a low concentration of NaOCl, low flow rate, small diameter, and medium residence time can achieve satisfactory decolorization results, but with a lower consumption of chemicals, energy, equipment, and better environmental impact.

Article Highlights

  • Colored wastewater was decolorized using batch and microreactor systems.

  • Various microreactor lengths, diameters, and mixture velocities were tested.

  • Microreactor system required 500 times lower amounts of decolorizing agent.


Wastewater Decolorization Azo dye Microreactor 



The research presented in this paper was realized as part of project TR 34009, funded by the Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development of the Republic of Serbia.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Alinsafi A, Khemis M, Pons MN et al (2005) Electro-coagulation of reactive textile dyes and textile wastewater. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 44:461–470. Google Scholar
  2. Arami M, Yousefi N, Mohammad N (2005) Removal of dyes from colored textile wastewater by orange peel adsorbent: equilibrium and kinetic studies. J Colloid Interface Sci 288:371–376. Google Scholar
  3. Chung CK, Shih TR, Chang CK et al (2011) Design and experiments of a short-mixing-length baffled microreactor and its application to microfluidic synthesis of nanoparticles. Chem Eng J 168:790–798. Google Scholar
  4. Directive 2000/60/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 October 2000 establishing a framework for Community action in the field of water policy. The European Parliament and the Council of the European unionGoogle Scholar
  5. Dojcinovic B (2011) Primena reaktora na bazi dielektričnog barijernog pražnjenja za dekolorizaciju reaktivnih tekstilnih boja Doktorska disertacija. Disertacija 1–176Google Scholar
  6. Drhova M, Hejda S, Kristal J, Kluson P (2012) Performance of continuous micro photo reactor—comparison with batch process. Proc Eng 42:1365–1372. Google Scholar
  7. Dudu TE, Alpaslan D, Uzun Y, Aktas N (2017) Utilization of hydrogel-fungus composites as absorbents for removal of textile dyes from aqueous media. Int J Environ Res 11:557–568. Google Scholar
  8. Eng JC, Technol P, Ghaly AE et al (2014) Chemical engineering and process technology production, characterization and treatment of textile effluents: a critical review. J Chem Eng Process Technol 5:1–18. Google Scholar
  9. Gao B, Wang Y, Yue Q et al (2007) Color removal from simulated dye water and actual textile wastewater using a composite coagulant prepared by polyferric chloride and polydimethyldiallylammonium chloride. Sep Purif Technol 54:157–163. Google Scholar
  10. Gao M, Zeng Z, Sun B et al (2012) Ozonation of azo dye Acid Red 14 in a microporous tube-in-tube microchannel reactor: decolorization and mechanism. Chemosphere 89:190–197. Google Scholar
  11. Gomes L et al (2011) Electrochemical degradation of the dye reactive orange 16 using electrochemical flow-cell. J Braz Chem Soc 227:1299–1306Google Scholar
  12. Held AM, Halko DJ, Hurst JK (1978) Mechanisms of chlorine oxidation of hydrogen peroxide. J Am Chem Soc 100(18):5732–5740. Google Scholar
  13. Hoque A, Clarke A (2013) Greening of industries in Bangladesh: pollution prevention practices. J Clean Prod 51:47–56. Google Scholar
  14. Jafari SA, Cheraghi S, Mirbakhsh M et al (2015) Employing response surface methodology for optimization of mercury bioremediation by Vibrio parahaemolyticus PG02 in coastal sediments of Bushehr, Iran. Clean Soil Air Water 43:118–126. Google Scholar
  15. Jovanovic J (2011) Liquid-liquid microreactors for phase transfer catalysis. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven, Eindhoven. Google Scholar
  16. Khatri A, Hussain M, Mohsin M, White M (2015) A review on developments in dyeing cotton fabrics with reactive dyes for reducing effluent pollution. J Clean Prod 87:50–57. Google Scholar
  17. Khouni I, Marrot B, Ben R (2010) Decolourization of the reconstituted dye bath effluent by commercial laccase treatment: Optimization through response surface methodology. Chem Eng J 156:121–123. Google Scholar
  18. Li J, Tao T, Li XB et al (2009) A spectrophotometric method for determination of chemical oxygen demand using home-made reagents. Desalination 238:139–145. Google Scholar
  19. Lomander A, Schreuders P, Russek-Cohen E, Ali L (2004) Evaluation of chlorines’ impact on biofilms on scratched stainless steel surfaces. Bioresour Technol 94:275–283. Google Scholar
  20. Mijin D, Zlatic D, Uscumlic G, Jovancic P (2008) Solvent effects on photodegradation of CI Reactive Orange 16 by simulated solar light. Hem Ind 62:275–281. Google Scholar
  21. Mijin D, Dabic D, Mirkovic J, Bozic B, Grgur B (2016) Influence of microwave irradiation on hypochlorite decolorisation of synthetic dyes. Zas Mat 57(1):63. Google Scholar
  22. Muhammad A, Shafeeq A, Butt MA et al (2008) Decolorization and removal of COD and BOD from raw and biotreated textile dye bath effluent through advanced oxidation processes (AOPS). Brasil J Chem Eng 25:453–459Google Scholar
  23. Pearce CI, Lloyd JR, Guthrie JT (2003) The removal of colour from textile wastewater using whole bacterial cells: a review. Dyes Pigments 58:179–196. Google Scholar
  24. Puasa SW, Ruzitah MS, Sharifah ASAK (2012) Competitive removal of Reactive Black 5/Reactive Orange 16 from aqueous solution via micellar-enhanced ultrafiltration. Int J Chem Eng Appl 3:354–358. Google Scholar
  25. Radetic M, Radojevic D, Ilic V, Mihailovic D (2009) Recycled wool-based nonwoven material for decolorisation of dyehouse effluents. Int J Cloth Sci Technol 21:109–116. Google Scholar
  26. Ramos B, Ookawara S, Matsushita Y, Yoshikawa S (2014) Intensification of photochemical wastewater decolorization process using microreactors. J Chem Eng Jpn 47:136–140. Google Scholar
  27. Robinson T, McMullan G, Marchant R, Nigam P (2001) Remediation of dyes in textile effluent: a critical review on current treatment technologies with a proposed alternative. Bioresour Technol 77(3):247–255. Google Scholar
  28. Sadeghian A, Montazer M, Damerchely R (2015) Discoloration of denim garment with color free effluent using montmorillonite based nano clay and enzymes: nano bio-treatment on denim garment. J Clean Prod 91:208–215. Google Scholar
  29. Santos SCR, Oliveira ÁFM, Boaventura RAR (2016) Bentonitic clay as adsorbent for the decolourisation of dyehouse effluents. J Clean Prod 126:667–676. Google Scholar
  30. Spagni A, Casu S, Grilli S (2012) Bioresource technology decolourisation of textile wastewater in a submerged anaerobic membrane bioreactor. Bioresour Technol 117:180–185. Google Scholar
  31. Tanimu A, Jaenicke S, Alhooshani K (2017) Heterogeneous catalysis in continuous flow microreactors: a review of methods and applications. Chem Eng J 327:792–821. Google Scholar
  32. Un UT, Aytac E (2013) Electrocoagulation in a packed bed reactor-complete treatment of color and cod from real textile wastewater. J Environ Manag 123:113–119Google Scholar
  33. Vargas J, Halog A (2015) Effective carbon emission reductions from using upgraded fly ash in the cement industry. J Clean Prod 103:948–959. Google Scholar
  34. Vega-Negron AL et al (2018) Simultaneous adsorption of cationic and anionic dyes by chitosan/cellulose beads for wastewaters treatment. Int J Environ Res 12(1):59–65Google Scholar
  35. Verma AK, Dash RR, Bhunia P (2012) A review on chemical coagulation/flocculation technologies for removal of colour from textile wastewaters. J Environ Manag 93:154–168. Google Scholar
  36. Visa M, Chelaru A (2014) Applied surface science hydrothermally modified fly ash for heavy metals and dyes removal in advanced wastewater treatment. Appl Surf Sci 303:14–22. Google Scholar
  37. Ward DB, Tizaoui C, Slater MJ (2006) Wastewater dye destruction using ozone-loaded VolasilTM 245 in a continuous flow liquid–liquid/ozone system. Chem Eng Process Process Intensif 45:124–139. Google Scholar
  38. Chequer FMD, de Oliveira GAR, Ferraz ERA, Cardoso JC, Zanoni MVB, de Oliveira DP (2013) Textile dyes: dyeing process and environmental impact. In: Günay M (ed) Eco-friendly textile dyeing and finishing. IntechOpen.
  39. Zahrim AY, Tizaoui C, Hilal N (2011) Coagulation with polymers for nano filtration pre-treatment of highly concentrated dyes: a review. DES 266:1–16. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Innovation Center, Faculty of Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  2. 2.Faculty of Technology and MetallurgyUniversity of BelgradeBelgradeSerbia
  3. 3.The Academy of Engineering Sciences of SerbiaBelgradeSerbia

Personalised recommendations