Biomarker Responses to Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in the Native Fish Ramnogaster arcuata, South America
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Quantification of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in Bahía Blanca Estuary (BBE, Argentina) fish samples (Ramnogaster arcuata) was performed to evaluate the environmental impact through anthropogenic activity. In addition, several metabolic enzyme activities (Aspartate aminotransferase—AST, Alanine aminotransferase—ALT, Lactate dehydrogenase—LDH, Creatine kinase—CK and, Alkaline phosphatase—ALP), protein content and lipid peroxidation as oxidative stress biomarker were analyzed in muscle and liver and related to tisular PAHs levels. Results showed low to moderate PAHs levels in R. arcuata muscle (9.34–41.25 ng/g, wet weight) with a marked predominance of two/three ringed compounds (phenanthrene > naphthalene > acenaphthene > acenaphthylene > fluoranthene). Fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo-[b]fluoranthene and benzo-[a]pyrene concentrations correlated positively with hepatic AST and ALT and negatively with muscular proteins and hepatic lipid peroxidation. 2-metil-naphthalene and acenaphthene levels correlated negatively with LDH in muscle and positively with lipid peroxidation in liver tissue. Correlation of PAHs with metabolic enzymes, proteins and lipid peroxidation indicated a differential metabolization and suggesting that hepatic AST/ALT could be used as PAHs biotransformation biomarkers and muscular LDH as a stress oxidation biomarker in R. arcuata. In addition, CK activity was suggested as a good index of muscular health. The obtained results highlighted the significance of using a set of integrated biomarkers to assess PAHs toxicity in fish inhabiting their natural ambient and confirm that R. arcuata could be used as a good bioindicator for marine areas.
Ramogaster arcuata is proposed as a bioindicator.
AST and ALT serve as biomarkers of PAHs-induced liver biotransformation.
Muscular LDH in R. arcuata was in relation to LPO induced by PAHs.
CK in muscle could be used to verify the muscular health status of fishes.
KeywordsPolycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons Fish Biomarkers
There is no actual or potential conflict of interest in relation to this article. This work was supported by grants from the Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (CONICET), the Universidad Nacional del Sur, and the Agencia Nacional de Promoción científica y Tecnológica, Argentina. Préstamo BID PICT 2015-0709 granted to Andrés H. Arias. PGI 24ZQ12 granted to Andrés H. Arias. Préstamo BID PICT 2016-0540 granted to Ana C. Ronda. We thank Dr. Walter Melo for supplying the cartographic data and Ana C. Ronda is also deeply grateful to Dr Andrea L. Cazorla for providing assistance in the sampling design and information from her knowledge.
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