Cadmium Removal from Contaminated Sediment Using EDTA and DTPA with Water Hyacinth
Chelating agents and pH play a significant role in affecting heavy metal availability contaminated sediment. Water hyacinth was studied for efficiency of cadmium (Cd) uptake using EDTA, DTPA, and a mixture of EDTA/DTPA at various pH values. Experiments were conducted by adding 2 mg/L of EDTA, DTPA, and EDTA/DTPA at pH 4, 5, 7, and 9. Plants were submerged in water containing 80 mg/kg of Cd-contaminated sediment and harvested at 30, 60, 90, and 120 days to measure the Cd concentrations in two parts, including the above-water part (stems and leaves) and underwater part (roots). The results showed that Cd accumulation in the plants with added EDTA and DTPA was higher than that in the control sets, indicating that EDTA and DTPA enhanced Cd uptake by water hyacinth. However, the pH-dependent results with EDTA and DTPA amendment did not significantly differ in terms of Cd uptake. The Cd concentrations in underwater part (roots) with EDTA and DTPA were 62.53 and 61.17 mg/kg, respectively. The above-water part could accumulate Cd at lower levels than the underwater part by a factor of approximately 10 for both EDTA and DTPA. Cd accumulation in the underwater part was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that in the above-water part. For the EDTA/DTPA treatment, the average Cd accumulation in the underwater part (112.73 mg/kg) was higher than that in the above-water part (14.23 mg/kg) at 90 days. The appropriate condition for reducing Cd concentrations in contaminated sediment by the uptake of Cd in water hyacinth is the synergistic mechanism of EDTA/DTPA at pH 5, which provides a Cd-removal capacity from sediment of more than 0.51% within 3 months.
KeywordsCadmium EDTA DTPA Water hyacinth Phytoremediation Sediments
The authors thank the Office of Higher Education Commission (OHEC) and the S&T Postgraduate Education and Research Development Office (PERDO) for their financial support of the Research Program and the Ratchadaphiseksomphot Endowment Fund, Chulalongkorn University, for the Research Unit. We would like to express our sincere thanks to the Environmental Research Institute, Chulalongkorn University (ERIC), the Center of Excellence on Hazardous Substance Management (HSM) and the Synchrotron Light Research Institute (SLRI), for their invaluable support in terms of facilities and scientific equipment.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.
- Aisien FA, Oboh IO, Aisien ET (2012) Phytotechnology-remediation of inorganic contaminants. In: Anjum NA, Pereira ME, Ahmad I, Duarte C, Umar S, Khan NA (eds) Phytotechnologies: remediation of environmental contaminants. CRC Press, USA, pp 75–98. https://doi.org/10.1201/b12954-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ariyaganon N (2007) Studies on phytoextraction efficiency of copper, zinc and nickel by weed plants in Thailand. Ratchadaphisek Somphot Endowment Fund, Chulalongkorn University, BangkokGoogle Scholar
- Baszyki J, Horvath M (1980) Morphology, water hyacinth. Hindasia publishers, New Delhi, India. pp 62–71Google Scholar
- Kohnke H, Franzmeier DP (1995) Soil science simplified. Waveland Press Inc, Long Grove IllinoisGoogle Scholar
- Kongmuang K, Sampanpanish P (2010) Effect of EDTA and citric acid on cadmium uptake by water hyacinth, In proceedings of the Maefahluang Symposium 2010, Chiangrai province, Thailand, 19–20 November 2010Google Scholar
- Lu X, Kruatrachue M, Pokethitiyook P, Homyok K (2004) Removal of cadmium and zinc by water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes. Sci Asia 30:93–103. https://doi.org/10.2306/scienceasia1513-1874.2004.30.093 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Nakbanpote W, Paitlertumpai N, Sukadeetad K, Meesungeon O, Noisa-nguan W (2010) Advances in Phytoremediation Research: a case study of Gynura pseudochina (L.) DC. In: Fuerstner I (ed) Advanced knowledge application in practice. InTech. ISBN: 978-953-307-141-1. https://doi.org/10.5772/10366. http://www.intechopen.com/books/advanced-knowledge-application-in-practice/advance-inphytoremediation-research.
- Notification of the National Environmental Board, No. 8, B.E. 2537 (1994) Issued Under the Enhancement and Conservation of National Environmental Quality Act B.E.2535 (1992), published in the Royal Government Gazette, vol 111, Part 16, dated February 24, B.E.2537 (1994)Google Scholar
- Peer WA, Baxter IR, Richards EL, Freeman JL, Murphy AS (2005) Phytoremediation and hyperaccumulator plants. In: Tamas MJ, Martinoia E (eds) Molecular biology of metal homeostasis and detoxification. Topics in Current Genetics, vol 14. Springer, Berlin, pp 299–340. https://doi.org/10.1007/4735_100
- Pepper IL, Bezdicek DF, Baker AS, Sims JM (1983) Silage corn uptake of sludge-applied zinc and cadmium as affected by soil pH. J Environ Qual 12(2):270–275. https://doi.org/10.2134/jeq1983.00472425001200020024 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Sampanpanish P (2015) Phytoremediation, 1st edn. Chulalongkorn University, BangkokGoogle Scholar
- Sampanpanish P, Chaengcharoen W, Tongcumpou C (2008) Heavy metals removal from contaminated soil by Siam weed (Chromolaena odorata) and Vetiver Grass (Vetiveria zizanioides). Res J Chem Environ. 12(30):23–34Google Scholar
- Synchrotron Light Research Institute (2011) BL6b: Micro–X–ray Fluorescence and X-ray Powder Diffraction”, Nakon Ratchasima Province, 250 km north-east of Bangkok, Thailand. Available via DIALOG. http://www.slri.or.th/th/index.php?option=com_content&view = article&id = 110&Itemid = 103. Accessed 28 Jan 2011
- Thailand Department of Primary Industries and Mines (Thailand) (2011) Cadmium contamination in environment, Mae Sot district, Tak province, Available via DIALOG. http://www.dpim.go.th/laws/article?catid=122&articleid=309. Accessed 20 Dec 2011
- Ullah J, Evangelou VP (2014) Enhancing the lead phytostabilization in wetland plant Juncus effusus L. through somaclonal manipulation and EDTA enrichment. Environ Chem 40:49–58Google Scholar
- USEPA (1996) Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices, Method. 3052, Washington D.C., USAGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (1998) Microwave assisted acid digestion of siliceous and organically based matrices, Method. 3052, Washington D.C., USA, 1996.22. USEPA, Microwave assisted acid digestion of Aqueous Samples and Extracts, Method. 3051A, Washington D.C., USAGoogle Scholar
- USEPA (2000) Introduction to phytoremediation, Ohio, USA. National risk management research laboratory office of research and development, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
- Wongtanet J, Parkpain P (2008) Phytoremediation of lead in contaminated water. J Environ Res (Thailand) 30(2):1–10Google Scholar