Environmental Magnetism and Heavy Metal Assemblages in Lake Bottom Sediments, Anchar Lake, Srinagar, NW Himalaya, India

  • Aasif Mohmad Lone
  • Hema AchyuthanEmail author
  • Rayees Ahmad Shah
  • Satish Jagdeo Sangode
Research paper


Lake sedimentation represents a collective record of atmospheric and surface processes operating over the catchment areas. Magnetic minerals along with heavy metal assemblages can selectively represent the ongoing impact of dominant environmental processes over the catchment regions. Lake bottom sediments collected from Anchar Lake were investigated to trace the magnetic and heavy metal signatures in context to quantify the environmental conditions from one of the ideal setup of lake catchment in the Srinagar valley of Kashmir Himalaya. Magnetic parameters such as χARM, SIRM and SoftIRM revealed predominant soft ferrimagnetic mineralogy. The S-ratio showing a mean value of − 0.69 within a range of − 0.77 to − 0.57 depicted majority of PSD-SD ferrimagnetic grains. The χlf versus χfd % biplot suggest the presence of mixture of SP and coarser magnetic grains controlling the magnetic susceptibility signals in the lake bottom sediments. The magnetic parameters and heavy metal constituents in particular S-ratio, SIRM/χlf, χARMlf and χARM exhibit significant correlation with Cr, Cu, Ni and Zn. Furthermore, spatial variability of these parameters depicts a complex of detritus influx, anthropogenic inputs, and the domain size of minerals reflecting oxidizing and reducing conditions with sharp changes in the peripheral part and gradual mixing towards the central and deeper parts of the lake basin. Multivariate statistical analyses (Pearson correlation, cluster and factor analyses) attest direct relation of the heavy metals with mineral magnetic assemblages. Overall, the results reflect heterogeneity in the record within the lake basin at the scales of 10’s of meters attributed to basin lacustrine conditions.


Anchar Lake Environmental assessment Mineral magnetics Heavy metals Spatial distribution Multivariate analysis 



The authors are thankful to the Editor of the journal and the anonymous reviewers for their insightful comments and critical suggestions. Aasif Lone is thankful to Anna University, Chennai, for the Anna Centenary Research Fellowship (ACRF) that enabled him to carry out this work. Aasif Lone and SJS acknowledge the facilities under DST-FIST program and the Head, Department of Geology, SP Pune University, for providing the necessary facilities to carry out the analytical work.


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Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Aasif Mohmad Lone
    • 1
  • Hema Achyuthan
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rayees Ahmad Shah
    • 1
  • Satish Jagdeo Sangode
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of GeologyAnna UniversityChennaiIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeologySavitribai Phule Pune UniversityPuneIndia

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