Improvement of Carbamazepine Degradation by a Three-Dimensional Electrochemical (3-EC) Process

  • Abolghasem AlighardashiEmail author
  • Rasoul Shabani Aghta
  • Homeira Ebrahimzadeh
Research paper


Removal of carbamazepine (CBZ) was evaluated and studied during the oxidation by the three-dimensional electrochemical process (3-EC) compared to two-dimensional (2-EC) electrochemical process. The pilot tests were performed using two experimental units[one with powder of activated carbon (PAC) as particle electrode and the other without PAC] containing one anode (aluminum, alloy 1050) and one cathode (Al). Different operating parameters, including PAC concentration, current density, initial CBZ concentration, and reaction time were investigated. Both the removal efficiency and current efficiency increased when the current density was 9 mAcm−2, whereas it increased with rising the PAC concentration. The highest value of the removal efficiency (89.8%) was recorded for the optimum current density (9 mAcm−2), the PAC concentration (0.5 gL−1), and 10 min electrolysis time in the 3-EC process. The PAC concentration was the preponderant factor for CBZ removal. In comparison, the highest removal efficiency was 29.8% for the 2-EC process. Scavenger addition method was used to describe the mechanism, and found that superoxides are increased in 3-EC process. On the other hand, adsorption did not play any role in the degradation of CBZ in this study.


Three-dimensional electrochemical Powder of activated carbon Carbamazepine Degradation 



Two-dimensional electrochemical


Three-dimensional electrochemical


Advanced oxidation processes


Boron-doped diamond




Chemical oxygen demand


Granular activated carbon


Powder of activated carbon


Sewage treatment plant


Total organic carbon


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Copyright information

© University of Tehran 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Abolghasem Alighardashi
    • 1
    Email author
  • Rasoul Shabani Aghta
    • 1
  • Homeira Ebrahimzadeh
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Civil, Water and Environmental EngineeringShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranparsIran
  2. 2.Faculty of ChemistryShahid Beheshti UniversityTehranIran

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