Journal of Analysis and Testing

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 295–305 | Cite as

Simultaneous Voltammetric Determination of Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ Ions Using Aminosepiolite-Coated Glassy Carbon Electrode: Optimization of Detection Parameters via Response Surface Methodology

  • Ervice Ymélé
  • Sherman Lesly Zambou Jiokeng
  • Divine Bup Nde
  • Théophile Kamgaing
  • Ignas Kenfack TonléEmail author
Original Paper


Adsorptive stripping voltammetry using a glassy carbon electrode modified by a film of aminosepiolite was utilized for simultaneous pre-concentration and trace detection of cadmium, lead, and mercury ions in aqueous solution. The modified sepiolite exploited as electrode material was obtained by grafting on its surface of [(3-(2-aminoethylamino)propyl)]trimethoxysilane (AEPTMS). The results demonstrated that the amine groups on sepiolite efficiently affected the voltammetric detection of heavy metals. The full factorial design matrix and response surface methodology were applied in designing experiments, to determine the optimal conditions and to evaluate their mutual interactions. The high values of adjusted R2 obtained of the fitted model show that the experiments data were well explained by the model, which then allowed to acquire optimum parameters for the electroanalysis and detection of the analytes by differential pulse voltammetry. At pH 6.5 of accumulating medium, with an electrolysis potential of –0.9 V and in the concentration range of 10−8 M to 10−9 M, calibration plots were obtained. The limits of detection (3Sd/m) were 8.689 × 10−10 M, 8.197 × 10−10 M, and 8.099 × 10−10 M, respectively, for Cd2+, Pb2+, and Hg2+ ions. The interference effect of several cations and anions on the response of the analytes was also evaluated, and finally, the sensor was applied to the simultaneous detection of metal ions in tap water with satisfactory recovery rates.


Aminosepiolite Surface response methodology Factorial design Differential pulse voltammetry Heavy metals 



This work was supported by The World Academy of Sciences (TWAS) for the advancement of science in developing countries (Research Grant No. 16-515 RG/CHE/AF/AC_G-FR3240293302 allowed to I. K. Tonle).

Supplementary material

41664_2019_86_MOESM1_ESM.docx (285 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 284 kb)


  1. 1.
    Tonle IK, Ngameni E, Tchieno MMF, Walcarius A. J Solid State Electrochem. 2015;19:1949.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zhang S, He P, Lei W, Zhang G. J Electroanal Chem. 2014;724:29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Azad UP, Turllapati S, Rastogi PK, Ganesan V. Electrochim Acta. 2014;127:193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Colilla M, Darder M, Aranda P, Ruiz-Hitzky E. Chem Mater. 2005;17:708.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Ozkan D, Kerman K, Meric B, Kara P, Demirkan H, Polverejan M, Pinnavaia TJ, Ozsoz M. Chem Mater. 2002;14:1755.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Filho NLD. do Carmo DR. Talanta. 2006;68:919.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dong YP, Ding Y, Zhou Y, Chen J, Wang CM. J Electroanal Chem. 2014;717:206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Filho NLD, Okajima GL, Pires G, Costa RM, do Carmo R, Rosa AH. Port Electrochim Acta. 2008;26:163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Nguelo BB, Kenne DG, Tonle IK, Ngameni E, Detellier C. Electroanalysis. 2018;30:543.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Tonle IK, Letaief S, Ngameni E, Walcarius A, Detellier C. Electroanalysis. 2011;23:245.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Jieumboue AT, Ngameni E, Tonle IK, Walcarius A. Chem Mater. 2009;21:4111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Tonle IK, Ngameni E, Walcarius A. Sens Actuators B Chem. 2005;110:195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Background document for development of WHO. Guidelines for drinking-water quality (2011). WHO/SDE/WSH/03.04/09/Rev/1.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Background document for development of WHO Guidelines for Drinking-Water Quality (2005). -9WHO/SDE/WSH/05.08/10.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Durkalec M, Szkoda J, Kolacz R, Opalinski S, Nawrocka A, Zmudzki J. Int J Environ Res. 2015;9:205.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Evans EH, Day JA, Palmer CD, Price WJ, Smith CMM, Tyson JF. J Anal Atmos Spectrom. 2005;2:562.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Da-Col JA, Domene SMA, Pereira-Filho ER. Food Anal Methods. 2009;2:110.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Sen I, Shandil A, Shrivastava VS. Adv Appl Sci Res. 2011;2:161.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Lachas H, Richaud R, Herod AA, Dugwell DR, Kandiyoti R, Jarvis KE. Analyst. 1999;124:177.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Okcu F, Ertas FN, Gokcul HI, Tural H. Turk J Chem. 2005;29:355.Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Siriangkhawut W, Pencharee S, Grudpan K, Jakmunee J. Talanta. 2009;79:1118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wang J. Fresenius’ J Anal Chem. 1990;337:508.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Weuster-Botz D. J Biosci Bioeng. 2000;90:473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ymele E, Jiokeng ZLS, Tchieno MMF, Tonle IK. Adv Mater Sci. 2017;2:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Ensafi AA, Khayamian T, Atabati M. Talanta. 2003;59:727.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gomez CG, Drogui P, Zaviska F, Seyhi B, Gortares-Moroyoqui P, Buelna G, Niera-Saenz C, Estrada-Alvardo M, Ulloa-Mercado RG. J Electroanal Chem. 2014;732:1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Nde BD, Siriyabe M, Ahmed MM, Fon-Abi C, Paul Z, George NE, Kapseu C. J Chem Biol Phys Sci. 2014;3261.Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Nde BD, Fon-Abi C, Tenin D, Kapseu C, Tchiegang C. Food Bioprocess Technol. 2012;5:108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Yilmaz S, Ozturk B, Ozdemir D, Eroglu AE, Ertas FN. Turk J Chem. 2013;37:316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mannan S, Fakhru’l-Razi A, Alam MZ. J Environ Sci. 2007;19:23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Heidari A, Younesi H, Mehraban Z. Chem Eng J. 2009;153:70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Benhamou A, Baudu M, Derriche Z, Basly JP. J Hazard Mater. 2009;171:1001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ansanay-Alex S, Lomenech C, Hurel C, Marmier N. Int J Nanotechnol. 2012;9:204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Nonferrous Metals Society of China 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ervice Ymélé
    • 1
  • Sherman Lesly Zambou Jiokeng
    • 1
  • Divine Bup Nde
    • 2
  • Théophile Kamgaing
    • 1
  • Ignas Kenfack Tonlé
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Electrochemistry and Chemistry of Materials, Department of Chemistry, Faculty of ScienceUniversity of DschangDschangCameroon
  2. 2.Higher Institute of the SahelUniversity of MarouaMarouaCameroon

Personalised recommendations