Journal of Analysis and Testing

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 312–321 | Cite as

Determination of Variance of Secondary Metabolites in Lettuces Grown Under Different Light Sources by Flow Injection Mass Spectrometric (FIMS) Fingerprinting and ANOVA–PCA

  • Jianghao Sun
  • Mengliang Zhang
  • Nicola Kubzdela
  • Yaguang Luo
  • James M. Harnly
  • Pei ChenEmail author
Original Paper


Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) is one of the most consumed vegetables in the world and different management practice can result in considerable variability of the secondary metabolites. Flow injection mass spectrometry (FIMS) combined with analysis of variance–principle component analysis (ANOVA–PCA) was used to study differences in the secondary metabolites originating from different lighting conditions (Sunlight, white light, and florescent light) and lettuce varieties (Romaine and Lollo Rossa). Ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography–high-resolution accurate mass spectrometry was used for putative marker compound identification. Quinic acid, caffeic acid, chlorogenic acid, L-chicoric acid, and quercetin malonyl glucoside varied significantly for Romaine lettuce grown under different light conditions. The study showed that the combination of FIMS fingerprinting and ANOVA–PCA can be a useful tool for the characterization of the sources of variance in plant materials regarding to genetic, environmental, and management factors.


Lettuce Lactuca sativa L. Flow injection mass spectrometric fingerprinting ANOVA–PCA 



This research is supported by the Agricultural Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture and an Interagency Agreement with the Office of Dietary Supplements at the National Institutes of Health.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare no competing financial interest.

Supplementary material

41664_2018_72_MOESM1_ESM.docx (106 kb)
Supplementary material 1 (DOCX 105 kb)


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Copyright information

© The Nonferrous Metals Society of China 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jianghao Sun
    • 1
  • Mengliang Zhang
    • 2
  • Nicola Kubzdela
    • 1
    • 3
  • Yaguang Luo
    • 3
  • James M. Harnly
    • 1
  • Pei Chen
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service, Beltsville Human Nutrition Research CenterFood Composition and Methods Development LaboratoryBeltsvilleUSA
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryMiddle Tennessee State UniversityMurfreesboroUSA
  3. 3.US Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceFood Quality Lab/Environmental Microbial and Food Safety LabBeltsvilleUSA

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