Topological Data Analysis of Potentiometric Multisensor Measurements in Treated Wastewater
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In this study, a multisensor system consisting of 23 potentiometric sensors was applied for long-term online measurements in outlet flow of the water treatment plant. Within 1 month of continuous measurements, the data set of more than 295,000 observations was acquired. The processing of this dataset with conventional chemometric tools was cumbersome and not very informative. Topological data analysis (TDA) was recently suggested in chemometric literature to deal with large spectroscopic datasets. In this research, we explore the opportunities of TDA with respect to multisensor data with only 23 variables. It is shown that TDA allows for convenient data visualization, studying the evolution of water quality during the measurements and tracking the periodical structure in the data related to the water quality depending on the time of the day and the day of the week. TDA appears to be a valuable tool for multisensor data exploration.
KeywordsTopological data analysis Multisensor systems Potentiometric sensors Water quality
The authors are grateful to O. Lominoga and Zh. Lyadova from SUE “Vodokanal of St. Petersburg” for their valuable help in organizing the experiments. DK acknowledges financial support from RFBR project #17-33-50101. EL and AL acknowledge partial financial support from the Government of Russian Federation, Grant 08-08. VB thanks the Russian Ministry of Education and Science for support of this work within the framework of the basic part of the state task on the theme: “Adaptive technologies of analytical control based on optical sensors” (Project No. 4.7001.2017/BP).
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