Framings of Capitalism and the Archaeology of Sugar in the Islamic Mediterranean

  • Ian R. SimpsonEmail author
Original Article


Seeking to widen the constellation of pasts in studies of capitalism, this article contributes to interventions into the dominant narratives and frameworks in the history of capitalism. It discusses Western historiography and historicism in relation to the role that Islamic cultural geographies and sugar, as an iconic commodity, have played in the history of European capitalism and colonialism. This alternative rendition of sugar brings together significant archaeological and historical sources of sugar production in Egypt and Syria-Palestine during the medieval and Ottoman periods. Islamic sugar production and markets are discussed in relation to Western framings of historical capitalism, global commodities, unequal exchange, and capital accumulation. Questioning modernity’s framing of history and capitalism, this article offers a view of more diverse and changing configurations of interaction, and suggests a shift in analytical emphasis to market exchange in the past in order to make comparisons between commercial and market-oriented societies.


sugar production labor market exchange decolonizing European historiography medieval and Ottoman archaeology 


Con el objetivo de ampliar la constelación de pasados en los estudios del capitalismo, este artículo contribuye a las intervenciones en las narrativas y marcos dominantes en la historia del capitalismo. Aborda la historiografía e historicismo occidentales en relación con el papel que las geografías culturales islámicas y el azúcar, como una mercancía icónica, han desempeñado en la historia del capitalismo y colonialismo europeo. Esta versión alternativa del azúcar reúne importantes fuentes arqueológicas e históricas de la producción de azúcar en Egipto y Siria-Palestina durante los períodos medieval y otomano. La producción y los mercados islámicos de azúcar se discuten en relación con los marcos occidentales del capitalismo histórico, los productos básicos mundiales, el intercambio desigual y la acumulación de capital. Al cuestionar el marco establecido por la modernidad de la historia y del capitalismo, este artículo ofrece una visión de configuraciones de interacción más diversas y cambiantes, y sugiere un cambio en el énfasis analítico al intercambio de mercado en el pasado para hacer comparaciones entre sociedades comerciales y orientadas hacia el mercado.


S'efforçant d'élargir la constellation des études passées sur le capitalisme, cet article contribue aux interventions au sein des narrations et cadres dominants dans l'histoire du capitalisme. Il traite de l'historiographie et de l'historicisme occidentaux en lien avec le rôle que les géographies culturelles islamiques et le sucre, en tant que marchandise iconique, ont joué dans l'histoire du capitalisme et du colonialisme européens. Cette interprétation alternative du sucre associe des sources archéologiques et historiques importantes sur la production du sucre en Égypte et en Syrie-Palestine durant les périodes médiévale et ottomane. La production et les marchés du sucre islamiques sont traités en lien avec les cadres occidentaux du capitalisme historique, des matières premières mondiales, des échanges inégalitaires et de l'accumulation du capital. Par une interrogation des cadres de l'histoire et du capitalisme par la modernité, cet article propose un aperçu de configurations d'interactions plus diverses et changeantes. Il suggère un changement dans l'emphase analytique sur les échanges commerciaux du passé pour effectuer des comparaisons entre les sociétés commerciales et orientés sur les marchés.



  1. Abu Dalu, Ruba 1995 The Technology of Sugar Mills in the Jordan Valley during the Islamic Periods. In Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan V, Khairieh 'Amr, Fawzi Zayadine, and Muna Zaghloul, editors, pp. 37–48 [Arabic section]. Department of Antiquities, Amman, Jordan.Google Scholar
  2. Abu-Lughod, Janet L. 1989 Before European Hegemony: The World System A.D. 1250–1350. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  3. Adshead, Samuel Adrian M. 2004 T'ang China: The Rise of the East in World History. Palgrave Macmillan, Basingstoke, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Agnoletti, Stefania 2009 The Sugar Bowl. In Da Petra a Shawbak: Archeologia di una Frontiera, Guido Vannini and Michele Nucciotti, editors, pp. 144–145. Giunti, Florence, Italy.Google Scholar
  5. Ashcroft, Bill 1999 A Fatal Sweetness: Sugar and Post-Colonial Cultures. In White and Deadly: Sugar and Colonialism, D. P. S. Ahluwalia, Bill Ashcroft, and Roger Knight, editors, pp. 33–50. Nova Science, Commack, NY.Google Scholar
  6. Ashtor, Eliyahu 1977 Levantine Sugar Industry in the Later Middle Ages––an Example of Technological Decline. Israel Oriental Studies 7:226–280.Google Scholar
  7. Baram, Uzi, and Lynda Carroll 2000a The Future of the Ottoman Past. In A Historical Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire: Breaking New Ground, Uzi Baram and Lynda Carroll, editors, pp. 1–32. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  8. Baram, Uzi, and Lynda Carroll (editors) 2000b A Historical Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire: Breaking New Ground. Kluwer Academic/Plenum, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  9. Baruch, Uri 2001 Charred Wood Remains from Lower Ḥorbat Manot, Western Galilee. 'Atiqot 42:309–310.Google Scholar
  10. Blaut, James M. 1993 The Colonizer's Model of the World: Geographical Diffusionism and Eurocentric History. Guilford Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  11. Braudel, Fernand 1981 Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century, Vol. 1: The Structures of Everyday Life, the Limits of the Possible, Siân Reynolds, translator. Collins, London, UK.Google Scholar
  12. Braudel, Fernand 1983 Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century, Vol. 2: The Wheels of Commerce, Siân Reynolds, translator. Collins, London, UK.Google Scholar
  13. Braudel, Fernand 1984 Civilization and Capitalism 15th–18th Century, Vol. 3: The Perspective of the World, Siân Reynolds, translator. Collins, London, UK.Google Scholar
  14. Bronstein, Judith, Edna J. Stern, and Elisabeth Yehuda 2019 Franks, Locals and Sugar Cane: A Case Study of Cultural Interaction in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Journal of Medieval History 45(3):316–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Brown, Robin Maureen 1992 Late Islamic Ceramic Production and Distribution in the Southern Levant: A Socio-Economic and Political Interpretation. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, State University of New York at Binghamton, Binghamton. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI.Google Scholar
  16. Burke, Katherine Strange 2004 A Note on Archaeological Evidence for Sugar Production in the Middle Islamic Periods in Bilad Al-Sham. Mamluk Studies Review 8(2):109–118.Google Scholar
  17. Chakrabarty, Dipesh 2000 Provincializing Europe: Postcolonial Thought and Historical Difference. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  18. Coronil, Fernando 2000 Towards a Critique of Globalcentrism: Speculations on Capitalism's Nature. Public Culture 12(2):351–374.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Crowell, Aron 1997 Archaeology and the Capitalist World System: A Study from Russian America. Plenum Press, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cytryn, Katia 2016 Tiberias and Khirbat al-Minya: Two Long-lived Umayyad Sites on the Western Shore of the Sea of Galilee. In Khirbat al-Minya: The Umayyad Palace on the Sea of Galilee, Hans-Peter Kuhnen, editor, pp. 111–129. Deutsches Archaeologisches Institut, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  21. Dowd, Douglas 2000 Capitalism and Its Economics: A Critical History. Pluto Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Elbendary, Amina 2012 Between Riots and Negotiations: Urban Protest in Late Medieval Egypt and Syria. EB Verlag, Berlin, Germany.Google Scholar
  23. Emmanuel, Damati 2011 A Sugar Industry Site from the Fatimid to the Ottoman Periods at Tell Umm Al-Faraj, Western Galilee [in Hebrew]. 'Atiqot 65:139–159,177*.Google Scholar
  24. Feinman, Gary M., and Christopher P. Garraty 2010 Preindustrial Markets and Marketing: Archaeological Perspectives. Annual Review of Anthropology 39:167–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fernández-Armesto, Felipe 1987 Before Columbus: Exploration and Colonisation from the Mediterranean to the Atlantic, 1229–1492. Macmillan Education, Basingstoke, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fleisher, Jeffrey B. 2010 Housing the Market: Swahili Merchants and Regional Marketing on the East African Coast, Seventh to Sixteenth Centuries AD. In Archaeological Approaches to Market Exchange in Ancient Societies, Christopher P. Garraty and Barbara L. Stark, editors, pp. 141–159. University Press of Colorado, Boulder.Google Scholar
  27. Fox, John W., Nada Mourtada-Sabbah, and Mohammed al-Mutawa (editors) 2006 Globalization and the Gulf. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  28. Frank, Andre Gunder 1998 Reorient: Global Economy in the Asian Age. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  29. Franken, Hendricus J., and Jan Kalsbeek 1975 Potters of a Medieval Village in the Jordan Valley: Excavations at Tell Deir 'Allā––a Medieval Tell, Tell Abu Gourdan, Jordan. North-Holland Pub. Co., Amsterdam, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  30. Galloway, Jock H. 1989 The Sugar Cane Industry: An Historical Geography from Its Origins to 1914. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  31. Gascon, Richard 1971 Grand commerce et vie urbaine au XVIe siècle : Lyon et ses marchands (environs de 1520–environs de 1580) (Grand commerce and urban life in the 16th century: Lyon and its merchants [ca. 1520–ca. 1580]). S.E.V.P.E.N., Paris, France.Google Scholar
  32. Glick, Thomas F. 1992 Hydraulic Technology in Al-Andalus. In The Legacy of Muslim Spain, Salma Khadra Jayyusi and Manuela Marín, editors, pp. 974–986. E. J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  33. Goitein, Shelomo Dov 1967 A Mediterranean Society: The Jewish Communities of the Arab World as Portrayed in the Documents of the Cairo Geniza. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  34. Goitein, Shelomo Dov, and Mordechai Akiva Friedman 2008 India Traders of the Middle Ages: Documents from the Cairo Geniza ('India Book'), Part 1. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  35. Gudeman, Stephen 2001 The Anthropology of Economy: Community, Market, and Culture. Blackwell, Malden, MA.Google Scholar
  36. Hamarneh, Salih 1977–1978 Zir‘at Qasab Al-Sukkar Wa Sina‘Atuhu ‘Inda Al-‘Arab Al-Muslimin (Sugarcane cultivation and refining under the Arab Muslims). Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 22:12–19 [Arabic section].Google Scholar
  37. Hanna, Nelly 1998 Making Big Money in 1600: The Life and Times of Isma'il Abu Taqiyya, Egyptian Merchant. Syracuse University Press, Syracuse, NY.Google Scholar
  38. Harvey, David 2005 A Brief History of Neoliberalism. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  39. Harvey, David 2006 Spaces of Global Capitalism: Towards a Theory of Uneven Geographical Development. Verso, London, UK.Google Scholar
  40. Heck, Gene W. 2006 Charlemagne, Muhammad, and the Arab Roots of Capitalism. De Gruyter, Berlin, Germany.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hobson, John M. 2004 The Eastern Origins of Western Civilisation. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Jones, Ian W. N. 2016 Beyond Iron Age Landscapes: Copper Mining and Smelting in Faynan in the Twelfth to Fourteenth Centuries CE. In Landscapes of the Islamic World: Archaeology, History, and Ethnography, Stephen McPhillips and Paul D. Wordsworth, editors, pp. 111–128. University of Pennsylvania Press, Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  43. Jones, Richard E., and Konstantinos D. Politis (editors) 2017 Sweet Waste: Medieval Sugar Production in the Mediterranean Viewed from the 2002 Excavation at the Tawahin Es-Sukkar, Safi, Jordan. Potingair Press, Glasgow, UK.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, Richard E., Gary Tompsett, Konstantinos D. Politis, and Effie Photos-Jones 2000 The Tawahin as-Sukkar and Khirbat Shayk 'Isa Project, Phase Ikri: The Surveys. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 44:523–534.Google Scholar
  45. Kaptijn, Eva 2009 Life on the Watershed: Reconstructing Subsistence in a Steppe Region Using Archaeological Survey: A Diachronic Perspective on Habitation in the Jordan Valley. Doctoral dissertation, Faculty of Archaeology, Leiden University, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  46. Koehler, Benedikt 2014 Early Islam and the Birth of Capitalism. Lexington, Lanham, UK.Google Scholar
  47. Krishnan, Sanjay 2007 Reading the Global: Troubling Perspectives on Britain's Empire in Asia. Columbia University Press, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. LaGro, Henderikus Eduard 2009 Ayyubid-Mamluk Sugar Pottery from Tell Abu Sarbut, Jordan. Leiden Journal of Pottery Studies 25:63–102.Google Scholar
  49. Laparidou, Sofia, and Arlene M. Rosen 2015 Intensification of Production in Medieval Islamic Jordan and Its Ecological Impact: Towns of the Anthropocene. Holocene 25(10):1685–1697.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malpica Cuello, Antonio (editor) 1994 1492, lo Dulce a la Conquista de Europa: Actas del Cuarto Seminario Internacional sobre la Caña de Azúcar, Motril, 21–25 de Septiembre de 1992 (1492, the sweet conquest of Europe: Proceedings of the Fourth International Seminar on Sugarcane, Motril, 21–25 September 1992). Diputación Provincial de Granada, Granada, Spain.Google Scholar
  51. Malpica Cuello, Antonio (editor) 1995 Paisajes del Azúcar: Actas del Quinto Seminario Internacional Sobre la Caña de Azúcar, Motril, 20–24 de Septiembre de 1993 (Landscapes of sugar: Proceedings of the Fifth International Seminar on Sugarcane, Motril, 20–24 September 1993). Diputación Provincial de Granada, Granada, Spain.Google Scholar
  52. Mason, Robert B. 1995 Criteria for the Petrographic Characterization of Stonepaste Ceramics. Archaeometry 37(2):307–321.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Mason, Robert B. 2004 Shine Like the Sun: Lustre-Painted and Associated Pottery from the Medieval Middle East. Mazda, Costa Mesa, CA.Google Scholar
  54. Mason, Robert B., and Michael S. Tite 1994 The Beginnings of Islamic Stonepaste Technology. Archaeometry 36(1):77–91.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. McAlister, Lyle N. 1984 Spain and Portugal in the New World, 1492–1700. University of Minnesota Press, Minneapolis.Google Scholar
  56. Milwright, Marcus 2008 The Fortress of the Raven: Karak in the Middle Islamic Period (1100–1650). Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  57. Milwright, Marcus 2010 An Introduction to Islamic Archaeology. Edinburgh University Press, Edinburgh, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Mintz, Sidney Wilfred 1985 Sweetness and Power: The Place of Sugar in Modern History. Viking, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  59. Mitchell, Timothy 2002 Rule of Experts: Egypt, Techno-Politics, Modernity. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  60. Molera, Judit, Mario Vendrell-Saz, and Josefina Pérez-Arantegui 2001 Chemical and Textural Characterization of Tin Glazes in Islamic Ceramics from Eastern Spain. Journal of Archaeological Science 28(3):331–340.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Moore, Jason W. 2009 Madeira, Sugar, and the Conquest of Nature in the "First" Sixteenth Century, Part I: From "Island of Timber" to Sugar Revolution, 1420–1506. Review (Fernand Braudel Center) 32(4):345–390.Google Scholar
  62. Ouerfelli, Mohamed 2008 Le sucre: Production, commercialisation et usages dans la Méditerranée médiévale (Sugar: Production, marketing and uses in the medieval Mediterranean). Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Patterson, Thomas C. 2003 Marx's Ghost: Conversations with Archaeologists. Berg, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  64. Philips, William D., Jr. 1986 Sugar Production and Trade in the Mediterranean at the Time of the Crusades. In The Meeting of Two Worlds: Cultural Exchange between East and West during the Period of the Crusades, Vladimir P. Goss and Christine Verzár Bornstein, editors, pp. 393–406. Western Michigan University, Medieval Institute Publications, Kalamazoo.Google Scholar
  65. Phillips, William D., Jr. 2004 Sugar in Iberia. In Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450–1680, Stuart B. Schwartz, editor, pp. 27–41. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  66. Photos-Jones, Effie, Allan J. Hall, Richard Jones, and E. Pantos 2009 The Industrial Waste from the Medieval Sugar Refinery at the Tawahin Es-Sukkar in Jordan. In From Mine to Microscope: Advances in the Study of Ancient Technology, Ian Freestone, Thilo Rehren, and Andrew J. Shortland, editors, pp. 223–230. Oxbow, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  67. Photos-Jones, Effie, Konstantinos D. Politis, H. F. James, Allan J. Hall, Richard E. Jones, and J. Hamer 2002 The Sugar Industry in the Southern Jordan Valley: An Interim Report on the Pilot Season of Excavations, Geophysical and Geological Surveys at Tawahin as-Sukkar and Khirbat Ash-Shaykh Isa in Ghawr as-Safi. Annual of the Department of Antiquities of Jordan 46:591–614.Google Scholar
  68. Piketty, Thomas 2014 Capital in the Twenty-First Century. Bellknap Press of Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  69. Politis, Konstantinos D. 2013 The Sugar Industry in the Ghawr as-Safi, Jordan. Studies in the History and Archaeology of Jordan 11:467–480.Google Scholar
  70. Politis, Konstantinos D. (editor) 2015 The Origins of the Sugar Industry and the Transmission of Ancient Greek and Medieval Arab Science and Technology from the Near East to Europe: Proceedings of the International Conference, Athens, 23 May 2015. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens, Greece.Google Scholar
  71. Porëe-Braitowsky, Brigitte 1995 Les moulins et fabriques à sucre de Palestine et de Chypre: Histoire, geographie et technologie d'une production croisée et médiévale (The mills and sugar factories of Palestine and Cyprus: History, geography and technology of Crusader and medieval production). In Cyprus and the Crusades: Papers Given at the International Conference "Cyprus and the Crusades,” Nicosia, 6–9 September, 1994, Nicholas Coureas and Jonathan Riley-Smith, editors, pp. 377–510. Cyprus Research Centre, Nicosia, Cyprus.Google Scholar
  72. Prakash, Gyan 1990 Writing Post-Orientalist Histories of the Third World: Perspectives from Indian Historiography. Comparative Studies in Society and History 32(2):383–408.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Pringle, Denys 1997 Secular Buildings in the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem: An Archaeological Gazetteer. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  74. Rodinson, Maxime 1974 Islam and Capitalism. Pantheon, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  75. Rodríguez Morel, Genaro 2004 The Sugar Economy of Española in the Sixteenth Century. In Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450–1680, Stuart B. Schwartz, editor, pp. 85–114. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  76. Sato, Tsugitaka 2015 Sugar in the Social Life of Medieval Islam. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  77. Schriwer, Charlotte 2006 "From Water every Living Thing": Water Mills, Irrigation and Agriculture in the Bilad Al-Sham: Perspectives on History, Architecture, Landscape and Society, 1100–1850AD. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Medieval History, University of St. Andrews, St. Andrews, UK.Google Scholar
  78. Schriwer, Charlotte 2015 Water and Technology in Levantine Society, 1300–1900: An Historical, Archaeological and Architectural Analysis. Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  79. Schwartz, Stuart B. (editor) 2004 Tropical Babylons: Sugar and the Making of the Atlantic World, 1450–1680. University of North Carolina Press, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  80. Seligman, Jon 1996 Bet She’an, the Citadel. Excavations and Surveys in Israel 15:43–47.Google Scholar
  81. Shatzmiller, Maya 1994 Labour in the Medieval Islamic World. E. J. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  82. Steiner, Margreet L., Eveline J. van der Steen, and Henk J. Franken (editors) 2008 Sacred and Sweet: Studies on the Material Culture of Tell Deir 'Alla and Tell Abu Sarbut. Peeters, Louvain, Belgium.Google Scholar
  83. Stern, Edna J. 1999 The Sugar Industry in Palestine during the Crusader, Ayyubid and Mamluk Periods in Light of the Archeological Finds. Master's thesis, Department of Archaeology, Hebrew University of Jerusalem, Jerusalem, Israel.Google Scholar
  84. Stern, Edna J. 2001 The Excavations at Lower Ḥorbat Manot: A Medieval Sugar-Production Site. 'Atiqot 42:277–308.Google Scholar
  85. Stern, Edna J., Nimrod Getzov, Anastasia Shapiro, and Howard Smithline 2015 Sugar Production in the ‘Akko Plain from the Fatimid to the Early Ottoman Periods. In The Origins of the Sugarcane Industry and the Transmission of Ancient Greece and Medieval Arab Science and Technology from the near East to Europe, Konstantinos D. Politis, editor, pp. 79–112. National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Athens.Google Scholar
  86. Taha, Hamdam 2001 The Excavation of Tawaheen Es-Sukkar in the Jordan Valley. Orient Express 3:68–71.Google Scholar
  87. Taha, Hamdam 2009 Some Aspects of Sugar Production in Jericho, Jordan Valley. In A Timeless Vale: Archaeological and Related Essays on the Jordan Valley in Honour of Gerrit van der Kooij on the Occasion of His Sixty-Fifth Birthday, G. van der Kooij, Eva Kaptijn, and Lucas Pieter Petit, editors, pp. 181–191. Leiden University Press, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  88. Tampoe, Moira 1989 Maritime Trade between China and the West: An Archaeological Study of the Ceramics from Siraf (Persian Gulf), 8th to 15th Century A.D. Archaeopress, Oxford, UK.Google Scholar
  89. Thomas, Nicholas 1991 Entangled Objects: Exchange, Material Culture, and Colonialism in the Pacific. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  90. Turner, Bryan S. 1974 Islam, Capitalism and the Weber Theses. British Journal of Sociology 25(2):230–243.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Turner, Bryan S. 1994 Orientalism, Postmodernism and Globalism. Routledge, London, UK.Google Scholar
  92. von Wartburg, Marie-Louise 2001 The Archaeology of Cane Sugar Production: A Survey of Twenty Years of Research in Cyprus. Antiquaries Journal 81:305–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. von Wartburg, Marie-Louise 2014 Ubiquity and Conformity: A Comparative Study of Sugar Pottery Excavated in Cyprus. In Cypriot Medieval Ceramics: Reconsiderations and New Perspectives, Dēmētra Papanikola-Bakirtzē and Nicholas Coureas, editors, pp. 213–245. A. G. Leventis Foundation and Cyprus Research Centre, Nicosia, Cyprus.Google Scholar
  94. Walker, Bethany J. 2003 Mamluk Investment in Southern Bilād Al-Shām in the Eighth/Fourteenth Century: The Case of Ḥisbān. Journal of Near Eastern Studies 62(4):241–261.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Walker, Bethany J. 2014 On Archives and Archaeology: Reassessing Mamluk Rule from Documentary Sources and Jordanian Fieldwork. In Material Evidence and Narrative Sources: Interdisciplinary Studies of the History of the Muslim Middle East, D. J. Talmon-Heller and K. Cytryn-Silverman, editors, pp. 113–143. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.Google Scholar
  96. Wallerstein, Immanuel Maurice 1974 The Modern World-System: Capitalist Agriculture and the Origins of the European World-Economy in the Sixteenth Century. Academic Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  97. Wolf, Eric R. 1982 Europe and the People without History. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  98. Woodward, Robyn Patricia 2006 Medieval Legacies: The Industrial Archaeology of an Early Sixteenth-Century Sugar Mill at Sevilla La Nueva, Jamaica. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Archaeology, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, BC.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Society for Historical Archaeology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Leiden UniversityLeidenthe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations