Advertisement

Western Activism and the Veiling of Primitive Accumulation in the East African Ivory Trade

  • Alexandra KellyEmail author
Original Article
  • 14 Downloads

Abstract

This article explores themes of morality and capitalist exploitation within the context of the East African ivory trade. Through an interdisciplinary lens that incorporates object-based, archival analysis and critical heritage studies, this article traces how morality-tinged, Western-driven narratives concerning the ivory trade mobilize asymmetrical relationships of capitalist exchange in both the past and present. In the late 19th century, the abolitionist movement conflated the East African ivory and slave trades by narrating the forced coercion of Africans made to carry ivory tusks in the interior, only to be sold into slavery upon reaching the coast. This discursively erased histories of active African engagement with mercantile capitalism as well as emerging labor culture among professional porters of the caravan trade. The vilification of “Arab” slave traders through stories of extreme cruelty within the ivory trade was used to justify formal British colonialism in the region, which led to more expansive capitalist integration and extraction. In a circuitous fashion, contemporary Western conservation activists blame African corruption, Islamic extremism, and Asian consumption for rampant elephant and rhino poaching across East Africa, making way for neoliberal appropriation of East African heritage under the guise of moral interventionism. In both cases, moral (and Orientalist) arguments advocating liberation, heritage preservation, and economic development veil processes by which unequal exchange is facilitated and maintained.

Keywords

ivory trade heritage material culture neoliberalism 

Extracto

Este artículo explora temas de moralidad y explotación capitalista en el contexto del comercio de marfil del este de África. A través de una lente interdisciplinaria que incorpora análisis de archivo basado en objetos y estudios críticos de patrimonio, este artículo describe cómo las narraciones teñidas de moralidad con una orientación occidental sobre el comercio de marfil movilizan relaciones asimétricas de intercambio capitalista tanto en el pasado como en el presente. A fines del siglo XIX, el movimiento abolicionista combinó el marfil y el comercio de esclavos de África del Este al narrar la coerción forzada de los africanos para llevar colmillos de marfil en el interior, solo para ser vendidos como esclavos al llegar a la costa. Esto borró discursivamente las historias del compromiso activo de África con el capitalismo mercantil, así como la cultura laboral emergente entre los porteadores profesionales del comercio de caravanas. La difamación de los traficantes “árabes” a través de historias de extrema crueldad dentro del comercio de marfil se utilizó para justificar el colonialismo británico formal en la región, lo que condujo a una integración y extracción capitalista más expansiva. De manera tortuosa, los activistas de la conservación contemporáneos occidentales culpan a la corrupción africana, el extremismo islámico y el consumo asiático por la creciente caza furtiva de elefantes y rinocerontes en África oriental, dando paso a la apropiación neoliberal de la herencia de África oriental bajo el pretexto del intervencionismo moral. En ambos casos, los argumentos morales (y orientalistas) que abogan por la liberación, preservación del patrimonio y desarrollo económico velan los procesos mediante los cuales se facilita y mantiene el intercambio desigual.

Résumé

Cet article explore les termes de la moralité et de l’exploitation capitaliste dans le contexte du commerce de l’ivoire en Afrique orientale. Dans le cadre d’une approche interdisciplinaire incorporant une analyse d’archives, orientée-objet et des études critiques du patrimoine, cet article décrit comment les narrations teintées de moralité, influencées par l’Occident et traitant du commerce de l’ivoire mobilisent les relations asymétriques de l’échange capitaliste par le passé comme à l’heure présente. À la fin du 19ème siècle, le mouvement abolitionniste a combiné les commerces des esclaves et de l’ivoire de l’Afrique orientale pour faire le récit de la coercition forcée des Africains contraints de transporter les défenses d’ivoire dans l’intérieur des terres, pour finir par être vendus en esclavage en atteignant la côte. Ceci a effacé de manière discursive les récits d’un engagement africain actif avec le capitalisme mercantile ainsi qu’une culture ouvrière émergente parmi les porteurs professionnels du commerce par caravane. La représentation calomnieuse des marchands d’esclaves « arabes » par des récits d’une cruauté extrême durant le commerce de l’ivoire a été utilisée afin de justifier le colonialisme britannique officiel dans la région, ce qui a conduit à une extraction et à une intégration capitaliste plus vastes. Suivant une approche tortueuse, les activistes contemporains occidentaux de la préservation blâment la corruption africaine, l’extrémisme islamique et la consommation asiatique pour le braconnage effréné des éléphants et des rhinocéros à travers l’Afrique orientale, ouvrant la voie à une appropriation néolibérale du patrimoine de l’Afrique orientale sous le couvert d’un interventionnisme moral. Dans les deux cas, les arguments moraux (et orientalistes) prônant la libération, la préservation du patrimoine et le développement économique masquent les processus grâce auxquels les échanges inégalitaires sont facilités et maintenus.

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest Statement

The author states that there is no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Actman, Jani 2017 Does Destroying Ivory Save Elephants? Experts Weigh in, 2 August. Wildlife Watch, National Geographic <https://news.nationalgeographic.com/2017/08/wildlife-watch-ivory-crush-elephant-poaching>. Accessed 22 July 2019.
  2. Adams, Jonathan S., and Thomas O. McShane 1997 The Myth of Wild Africa: Conservation without Illusion. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  3. Alpers, Edward A. 1969 Trade, State, and Society among the Yao in the Nineteenth Century. Journal of African History 10(3):405–420.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Alpers, Edward A. 1975 Ivory and Slaves: Changing Pattern of International Trade in East Central Africa to the Later Nineteenth Century. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  5. Alpers, Edward A. 1995 The Ivory Trade in Africa: A Historical Overview. In Elephant: The Animal and Its Ivory in African Culture, Doran H. Ross, editor, pp. 349–363. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  6. Barbier, Edward B. 1995 Elephant Ivory and Tropical Timber: The Role of Trade Interventions in Sustainable Management. Journal of Environment Development 4(2):1–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Bazilchuk, Nancy 2013 Serengeti Road Divides Biologists: Will a Road across the Northern Tier of Serengeti National Park Ruin It? 23 May. Science News, Science Daily <http://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2013/05/130523082921.htm>. Accessed 21 February 2014.
  8. Beachey, Raymond W. 1976 The Slave Trade of Eastern Africa: A Collection of Documents. Africa Book Centre, London, UK.Google Scholar
  9. Bennett, Norman R. 1959 Americans in Zanzibar: 1825–1845. Essex Institute Historical Collections 95:239–262.Google Scholar
  10. Bennett, Norman R. 1961 Americans in Zanzibar: 1845–1865. Essex Institute Historical Collections 97:31–56.Google Scholar
  11. Bennett, Norman R. 1962 Americans in Zanzibar: 1865–1915. Essex Institute Historical Collections 98:36–61.Google Scholar
  12. Biginagwa, Thomas John 2012 Historical Archaeology of the Nineteenth-Century Caravan Trade in Northeastern Tanzania: A Zooarchaeological Perspective. Azania: Archaeological Research in Africa 47(3):405–406.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Bruner, Edward M., and Barbara Kirshenblatt-Gimblett 1994 Maasai on the Lawn: Tourist Realism in East Africa. Cultural Anthropology 9(4):435–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Burn the Ivory––Save the Elephant 2014 Burn the Ivory––Save the Elephant <https://burntheivory.org/why-burn-the-ivory/>. Accessed 12 February 2014; site now discontinued.
  15. Chami, Felix A., Eliwasa Maro, Jane Kessy, and Simon Odunga 2004 Historical Archaeology of Bagamoyo: Excavations at the Caravan-Serai. Dar es Salaam University Press, Dar es Salaam, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  16. Chittick, Neville 1965 The ‘Shirazi’ Colonization of East Africa. Journal of African History 6(3):275–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. CITES 2014 CITES (Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora) <http://www.cites.org/eng/disc/what.php>. Accessed 7 February 2014.
  18. Collins, Clare 1988 Museum Closes in Ivoryton. New York Times 18 December. Clippings File, Ivoryton Library, Ivoryton, CT.Google Scholar
  19. Connecticut Humanities Council 1998 The Towns that Elephants Built. Heritage Program Material, Ivoryton Library, Ivoryton CT.Google Scholar
  20. Conniff, Richard 1987 When Music in Our Parlors Brought Death to Darkest Africa. Audubon, Magazine of the National Audubon Society 89(4):77–93.Google Scholar
  21. Conrad, Joseph 1899 Heart of Darkness. J. M. Dent & Sons, London, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Cooper, Frederick 1997 Plantation Slavery on the East Coast of Africa. Heinemann, London, UK.Google Scholar
  23. Cowell, Alan 2010 Bid to Relax International Ban on the Sale of Ivory Is Rejected, 22 March. New York Times <http://www.nytimes.com/2010/03/23/world/africa/23ivory.html>. Accessed 5 June 2019.
  24. Croucher, Sarah K. 2011 “A Concubine Is still a Slave”: Sexual Relations and Omani Colonial Identities in Nineteenth Century East Africa. In Intimate Encounters, Postcolonial Engagements: Archaeologies of Empire and Sexuality, Barbara L. Voss and Eleanor Conlin Casella, pp. 67–84. Cambridge University Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  25. Croucher, Sarah K., and Stephanie Wynne-Jones 2006 Slave Routes in Western Tanzania: A Preliminary Report on Survey in Tabora and Ujiji. African Diaspora Archaeology Network Newsletter 9(4). African Diaspora Archaeology Newsletter, Scholarworks@UMassAmherst <https://scholarworks.umass.edu/adan/vol9/iss4/18>. Accessed 5 June 2019.
  26. Dublin, Holly T., and Richard E. Hoare 2004 Searching for Solutions: The Evolution of an Integrated Approach to Understanding and Mitigating Human–Elephant Conflict in Africa. Human Dimensions of Wildlife 9(4):271–278.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ellis, Richard. 2005 Tiger Bone and Rhino Horn: The Destruction of Wildlife for Traditional Chinese Medicine. Island Press, Washington, DC.Google Scholar
  28. Entwistle, Abigail, and Nigel Dunstone 2000 Priorities for the Conservation of Mammalian Diversity: Has the Panda Had Its Day? Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.Google Scholar
  29. Fagin, Steve 1988 Sudden Finale Played in Ivoryton, Piano Maker Closed; Museum Dismantled. New London Day 12 December:A1,A12. New London, CT. Clippings File, Ivoryton Library, Ivoryton, CT.Google Scholar
  30. Farrow, Anne 2002 Chapter Seven: The Last Slaves, 29 September. Hartford Courant <http://www.courant.com/news/special-reports/hc-newivory1.artsep29,0,1644555.story>. Accessed 5 June 2019.
  31. Farrow, Anne, Joel Lang, and Jenifer Frank 2006 Complicity: How the North Promoted, Prolonged, and Profited from Slavery. Ballantine, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  32. Ferguson, James 2006 Global Shadows: Africa in the Neoliberal World Order. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Fyumagwa, Robert D., Emmanuel Gereta, S. Hassan, J. R. Kideghesho, E. M. Kohi, J. Keyyu, F. Magige, I. M. Mfunda, A. Mwakatobe, J. Ntalwila, J. W. Nyahongo, V. Runyoro, and E. Røskaft 2013 Roads as a Threat to the Serengeti Ecosystem. Conservation Biology 27(5):1122–1125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Garland, Elizabeth 2008 The Elephant in the Room: Confronting the Colonial Character of Wildlife Conservation in Africa. African Studies Review 51(3):51–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gettleman, Jeffrey 2012 Africa’s Elephants Are Being Slaughtered in Poaching Frenzy, 3 September. New York Times <https://www.nytimes.com/2012/09/04/world/africa/africas-elephants-are-being-slaughtered-in-poaching-frenzy.html>. Accessed 5 June 2019.
  36. Glassman, Jonathon 1991 The Bondsman’s New Clothes: The Contradictory Consciousness of Slave Resistance on the Swahili Coast. Journal of African History 32(2):277–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Harvey, David 2007 Neoliberalism as Creative Destruction. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science 610:22–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hochschild, Adam 1999 King Leopold’s Ghost: A Story of Greed, Terror, and Heroism in Colonial Africa. Houghton Mifflin, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  39. Hunwick, John O. 2005 A Region of the Mind: Medieval Arab Views of African Geography and Ethnography and Their Legacy. Sudanic Africa 16:103–136.Google Scholar
  40. Igoe, Jim, and Dan Brockington 2007 Neoliberal Conservation: A Brief Introduction. Conservation and Society 5(4):432.Google Scholar
  41. Igoe, Jim, and Beth Croucher 2007 Conservation, Commerce, and Communities: The Story of Community-Based Wildlife Management Areas in Tanzania’s Northern Tourist Circuit. Conservation and Society 5(4):534–561.Google Scholar
  42. Kahumbu, Paula 2013 Kenya Overhauls Wildlife Laws following Rise in Elephant and Rhino Deaths, 7 June. The Guardian <http://www.theguardian.com/environment/africa-wild/2013/jun/07/kenya-wildlife-laws-elephant-rhino-deaths>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  43. Karimi, Faith 2013 U.S. Destroys Tons of Elephant Ivory; Offers $1 Million Bounty on Traffickers, 14 November. CNN <http://www.cnn.com/2013/11/14/us/wildlife-trafficking-bounty/index.html>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  44. Kirkman, James S. 1954 The Arab City of Gedi: Excavations at the Great Mosque, Architecture and Finds. Oxford University Press, Oxford, UK.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Lane, Paul J. 2011 Slavery and Slave Trading in Eastern Africa: Exploring the Intersections of Historical Sources and Archaeological Evidence. In Slavery in Africa: Archaeology and Memory, Paul J. Lane and Kevin C. Macdonald, editors, pp. 281–314. Oxford University Press, New York, NY.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Levin, Dan 2013 The Price of Ivory: From Elephants’ Mouths, an Illicit Trail to China. 1 March. New York Times <https://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/02/world/asia/an-illicit-trail-of-african-ivory-to-china.html>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  47. Livingstone, David 2014 A Popular Account of Dr. Livingstone’s Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries, and the Discovery of Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa 1858–1864. eBooks@Adelaide, Adelaide, Australia. eBooks@Adelaide, University Library, University of Adelaide <http://ebooks.adelaide.edu.au/l/livingstone/david/zambesi/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  48. Livingstone, David, and Charles Livingstone 1866 Narrative of an Expedition to the Zambesi and Its Tributaries: And of the Discovery of the Lakes Shirwa and Nyassa, 1858–1864. Harper & Bros. New York, NY.Google Scholar
  49. Machado, Pedro 2009 Cloths of a New Fashion: Networks of Exchange, African Consumerism and Cloth Zones of Contact in India and the Indian Ocean in the Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. In How India Clothed the World: The World of South Asian Textiles, 1500–1850, Giorgio Riello and Tirthankar Roy, editors, pp. 53–84. Brill, Leiden, the Netherlands.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Malcarne, Don, Edith Deforest, and Robbi Storms 2002 Deep River and Ivoryton. Arcadia, Mt. Pleasant, SC.Google Scholar
  51. Martin, Esmond, and Daniel Stiles 2008 Ivory Markets in the USA. Care for the Wild International, West Sussex, UK. Save the Elephants <https://savetheelephants.org/wp-content/uploads/2016/11/2008IvoryMarketsUSA.pdf>. Accessed 22 July 2019.
  52. Meskell, Lynn 2002 Negative Heritage and Past Mastering in Archaeology. Anthropological Quarterly 75(3):557–574.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Meskell, Lynn 2009 The Nature of Culture in Kruger National Park. In Cosmopolitan Archaeologies, Lynn Meskell, editor, pp. 89–112. Duke University Press, Durham, NC.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Meskell, Lynn 2011 The Nature of Heritage: The New South Africa. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.Google Scholar
  55. Meskell, Lynn 2015 Global Heritage: A Reader. John Wiley & Sons, West Sussex, UK.Google Scholar
  56. Moore, Ernst D. 1931 Ivory: Scourge of Africa. Harper & Brothers, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  57. Muchangi, John 2016 Tanzania Stops Plan for ‘Killer’ Serengeti Road after Activists Protest, 17 November. The Star <http://www.the-star.co.ke/news/2016/11/17/tanzania-stops-plan-for-killer-serengeti-road-after-activists-protest_c1457497>. Accessed 31 August 2017; site discontinued.
  58. Narula, Svati Kirsten 2014 Crush and Burn: A History of the Global Crackdown on Ivory, 27 January. The Atlantic <http://www.theatlantic.com/international/archive/2014/01/crush-and-burn-a-history-of-the-globa-crackdown-on-ivory/283310/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  59. Naughton, Lisa, Robert Rose, and Adrian Treves 1999 The Social Dimensions of Human–Elephant Conflict in Africa: A Literature Review and Case Studies from Uganda and Cameroon. IUCN, International Union for Conservation of Nature <https://www.iucn.org/sites/dev/files/import/downloads/hecugcarev.pdf>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  60. Nicks, Denver 2013 Western Black Rhino Declared Extinct, 6 November. Time <http://time.com/9446/western-black-rhino-declared-extinct/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  61. Pagliuco, Christopher 2008 Ivoryton. Hog River Journal 6(4):28–33. West Hartford, CT.Google Scholar
  62. Pallaver, Karin 2007 The Power of African Consumers: Analysing the Glass Bead Demand in Nineteenth-Century East Africa, 1820–1900. Paper presented at the African Economic History Workshop, London School of Economics, London, UK.Google Scholar
  63. Perlez, Jane 1989 Kenya, in Gesture, Burns Ivory Tusks, 19 July. New York Times <http://www.nytimes.com/1989/07/19/world/kenya-in-gesture-burns-ivory-tusks.html>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  64. Prestholdt, Jeremy 2008 Domesticating the World: African Consumerism and the Genealogies of Globalization. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  65. Ritvo, Harriet 1989 The Animal Estate: The English and other Creatures in the Victorian Age. Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA.Google Scholar
  66. Robinson, Ronald, John Gallagher, and Alice Denny 1961 Africa and the Victorians: The Official Mind of Imperialism, 2nd edition. Macmillan Press, London, UK.Google Scholar
  67. Rockel, Stephen J. 2000 ‘A Nation of Porters’: The Nyamwezi and the Labour Market in Nineteenth-Century Tanzania. Journal of African History 41(2):173–195.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Rockel, Stephen J. 2006 Carriers of Culture: Labor on the Road in Nineteenth-Century East Africa. Praeger, London, UK.Google Scholar
  69. Rockel, Stephen J. 2009 Slavery and Freedom in Nineteenth Century East Africa: The Case of Waungwana Caravan Porters. African Studies 68(1):87–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Ropes, Edward D. 1973 The Zanzibar Letters of Edward D. Ropes, Jr., 1882–1892, Norman R. Bennett, editor. Boston University, African Studies Center, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
  71. Round, Christopher 2014 Al Shabaab Linked to Illegal Ivory Trade, 6 February. The International <http://www.theinternational.org/articles/491-al-shabaab-linked-to-illegal-ivory-trade>. Accessed 11 May 2014; site discontinued.
  72. Said, Edward W. 1979 Orientalism. Vintage, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  73. Salim, Khamis, and Abdurahman Juma 2005 Zanzibar Slave Memory. Idara ya Nyaraka Makumbusho na Mambo ya Kale, Zanzibar, Tanzania.Google Scholar
  74. Serengeti Watch 2010 Overview: Highway Development Threatens Serengeti, 6 June. Serengeti Watch <http://serengetiwatch.org/highway/stop-the-serengeti-highway/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  75. Shayt, David H. 1993 Elephant under Glass: The Piano Key Bleach House of Deep River, Connecticut. IA. The Journal of the Society for Industrial Archeology 19(1):37–59.Google Scholar
  76. Sheriff, Abdul 1987 Slaves Spices and Ivory Zanzibar: Integration of an East African Commercial Empire into the World Economy, 1770–1873. Ohio University Press, Athens.Google Scholar
  77. Shetler, Jan Bender 2007 Imagining Serengeti: A History of Landscape Memory in Tanzania from Earliest Time to the Present. Ohio University Press, Athens.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Shoshani, Jeheskel 1995 The African Elephant and Its Environment. In Elephant: The Animal and Its Ivory in African Culture, Doran H. Ross, editor, pp. 43–59. University of California Press, Berkeley.Google Scholar
  79. Spottiswoode, Owen 2014 Is the Illegal Trade in Wildlife the Fourth Largest in the World? 14 February. Full Fact <https://fullfact.org/factchecks/illegal_wildlife_trading_crime_prince_william-29350>. Accessed 15 July 2019.
  80. Stahl, Ann Brower 2004 African Archaeology: A Critical Introduction. Wiley-Blackwell, West Sussex, UK.Google Scholar
  81. Steinhart, Edward I. 2000 Elephant Hunting in 19th-Century Kenya: Kamba Society and Ecology in Transformation. International Journal of African Historical Studies 33(2):335–349.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Stiles, Daniel 2012 The ‘Inconvenient Truth’ about the Ivory Trade, 22 November. Ecologist <http://www.theecologist.org/news/news_analysis/1690689/the_inconvenient_truth_about_the_ivory_trade.html>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  83. Storms, Robert, Don Malcarne, and Ivoryton Library Association 2001 Around Essex CT: Elephants and River Gods. Arcadia, Mt. Pleasant, SC.Google Scholar
  84. Thomas, Tracey 1996 Deep River Ready for ‘Elephants’ Premiere. Hartford Courant 13 March: A12. Clippings File, Ivoryton Library, Ivoryton, CT.Google Scholar
  85. Tomlinson, Simon 2012 Unimaginable Horror as Helicopter-Borne Poachers Massacre 22 Elephants before Hacking off Their Tusks and Genitals, 24 April. DailyMail.com <http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2134696/scene-unimaginable-horror-helicopter-borne-poachers-massacre-22-elephants.html>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  86. Tsing, Anna Lowenhaupt 2004 Friction: An Ethnography of Global Connection. Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ.Google Scholar
  87. USA Today 2013 6 Tons of Seized Ivory Crushed in Denver, 15 November. USA Today <http://www.usatoday.com/story/news/nation/2013/11/15/ivory-crushed-denver/3563633/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  88. Vernet, Thomas 2009 Slave Trade and Slavery on the Swahili Coast (1500–1750). In Slavery, Islam and Diaspora, Behnaz A. Mirzai, Ismael Musah Montana, and Paul E. Lovejoy, editors, pp. 37–76. Africa World Press, Trenton, NJ. Academia <https://www.academia.edu/4258609/slave_trade_and_slavery_on_the_swahili_coast_1500–1750_>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  89. Walker, John Frederick 2009 Ivory’s Ghosts: The White Gold of History and the Fate of Elephants. Grove Press, New York, NY.Google Scholar
  90. Walz, Jonathan R. 2010 Route to a Regional Past: An Archaeology of the Lower Pangani (Ruvu) Basin, Tanzania, 500–1900 C.E. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Anthropology, University of Florida, Gainesville. University Microfilms International, Ann Arbor, MI. University of Florida <http://etd.fcla.edu/UF/UFE0024810/walz_j.pdf>. Accessed 6 June 2019.
  91. Wasser, Samuel, Joyce Poole, Phyllis Lee, Keith Lindsay, Andrew Dobson, John Hart, Iain Douglas-Hamilton, George Wittemyer, Petter Granli, Bethan Morgan, Jody Gunn, Susan Alberts, Rene Beyers, Patrick Chiyo, Harvey Croze, Richard Estes, Kathleen Gobush, Ponjoli Joram, Alfred Kikoti, Jonathan Kingdon, Lucy King, David Macdonald, Cynthia Moss, Benezeth Mutayoba, Steve Njumbi, Patrick Omondi, and Katarzyna Nowak 2010 Elephants, Ivory, and Trade. Science 327(5971):1331–1332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Wemmer, Christen, and Catherine A. Christen (editors) 2008 Elephants and Ethics: Toward a Morality of Coexistence. Johns Hopkins University Press, Baltimore, MD.Google Scholar
  93. WWF (World Wildlife Federation) 2014 African Elephants. WWF <http://wwf.panda.org/what_we_do/endangered_species/elephants/african_elephants/>. Accessed 6 June 2019.

Copyright information

© Society for Historical Archaeology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of WyomingLaramieU.S.A.

Personalised recommendations