Blockchain in IoT: Current Trends, Challenges, and Future Roadmap

  • Pinchen CuiEmail author
  • Ujjwal GuinEmail author
  • Anthony Skjellum
  • David Umphress


The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the most promising technologies in the era of information technology. IoT enables ubiquitous data collections and network communications to bring significant and indispensable convenience and intelligence both to daily life and industrial operations. However, IoT is still confronting a number of challenges and manifesting a series of issues that need to be addressed urgently. Counterfeit hardware, software faults, security issues during communication, system management difficulties, and data privacy issues are significant issues for current IoT infrastructure. Meanwhile, blockchain, as an emerging information technology, has attracted huge public interest and has shown significant promise because of its decentralization, transparency, and security. The features of blockchain seem to be an ideal match for IoT, and by applying blockchain to an IoT environment, some of the aforementioned weaknesses can be addressed. This paper’s purpose is to introduce the use of blockchain in IoT applications. We present various challenges facing an IoT system and summarize the benefits of adopting blockchain into IoT infrastructure. We primarily focus on illustrating the blockchain applications in IoT with refined capabilities and enhanced security. To shed light on blockchain in IoT research, we also discuss limitations and future directions.


Internet of Things Blockchain BIoT Blockchain applications Security 



This material is based upon work supported by the National Science Foundation under Grants Nos. 1755733 and 1663616.

Compliance with Ethical Standards


Any opinions, findings, and conclusions or recommendations expressed in this material are those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect the views of the NSF.


  1. 1.
  2. 2.
    Bitnodes,, Accessed September 2019
  3. 3.
    Bitcoin Energy Consumption Index,, Accessed July 2019
  4. 4.
    Ethereum Energy Consumption Index,, Accessed July 2019
  5. 5.
  6. 6.
    78% of malware activity in 2018 driven by iot botnets, nokiaGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
  8. 8.
  9. 9.
    The dao attacked: code issue leads to $60 million ether theft.
  10. 10.
    Hackers compromised the cryptocurrency bitcoin gold.
  11. 11.
    Ibm and maersk form global joint venture applying blockchain to shipping logistics.
  12. 12.
    Ibm’s blockchain-ready cpu is smaller than a grain of salt, costs just 10 cents.
  13. 13.
    King of the ether throne refund issue.
  14. 14.
    Nicehash: Largest crypto-mining marketplace.
  15. 15.
    Nsa prism program taps in to user data of apple, google and others.
  16. 16.
    Study: attack on krebsonsecurity cost IoT device owners $323k.
  17. 17.
  18. 18.
    Abomhara M, Køien GM (2014) Security and privacy in the internet of things: current status and open issues. In: 2014 International conference on privacy and security in mobile systems (PRISMS), pp 1–8Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Abomhara M, Køien GM (2014) Security and privacy in the internet of things: current status and open issues. In: 2014 International conference on privacy and security in mobile systems (PRISMS)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Aggarwal S, Chaudhary R, Aujla GS, Jindal A, Dua A, Kumar N (2018) Energychain: enabling energy trading for smart homes using blockchains in smart grid ecosystem. In: Proceedings of the 1st ACM MobiHoc Workshop on Networking and Cybersecurity for Smart Cities, SmartCitiesSecurity’18, pp 1:1–1:6Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Al-Fuqaha A, Guizani M, Mohammadi M, Aledhari M, Ayyash M (2015) Internet of things: a survey on enabling technologies, protocols, and applications. IEEE Communications Surveys TutorialsGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Alam M, Chowdhury S, Tehranipoor M, Guin U (2018) Robust, low-cost, and accurate detection of recycled ics using digital signatures. In: IEEE International symposium on hardware oriented security and trust (HOST)Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Alam M, Tehranipoor M, Guin U (2017) Tsensors vision, infrastructure and security challenges in trillion sensor era. J Hardw Syst Secur 1(4):311–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Ali MS, Dolui K, Antonelli F (2017) Iot data privacy via blockchains and ipfs. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Internet of Things, IoT ’17, pp 14:1–14:7Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Alliance Z (2009) Ieee 802.15. 4 zigbee standardGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Androulaki E, Barger A, Bortnikov V, Cachin C, Christidis K, Caro AD, Enyeart D, Ferris C, Laventman G, Manevich Y, Muralidharan S, Murthy C, Nguyen B, Sethi M, Singh G, Smith K, Sorniotti A, Stathakopoulou C, Vukolic M, Cocco SW, Yellick J (2018) Hyperledger fabric: a distributed operating system for permissioned blockchainsGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Angeletti F, Chatzigiannakis I, Vitaletti A (2017) The role of blockchain and iot in recruiting participants for digital clinical trialsGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Anonymous: White paper: next-generation smart contract and decentralized application platform.
  29. 29.
    Asiri S, Miri A (2018) A sybil resistant IoT trust model using blockchains. In: 2018 IEEE International conference on blockchain (blockchain-2018)Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Atzei N, Bartoletti M, Cimoli T (2017) A survey of attacks on ethereum smart contracts (sok). In: International conference on principles of security and trust. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Atzori L, Iera A, Morabito G (2010) The internet of things: a survey Computer networksGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Ayoade G, Karande V, Khan L, Hamlen K (2018) Decentralized iot data management using blockchain and trusted execution environment. In: 2018 IEEE International conference on information reuse and integration (IRI). IEEE, pp 15–22Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Baccelli E, Hahm O, Gunes M, Wahlisch M, Schmidt TC (2013) Riot os: towards an os for the internet of things. In: 2013 IEEE Conference on computer communications workshops (INFOCOM WKSHPS)Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Back A, Corallo M, Dashjr L, Friedenbach M, Maxwell G, Miller A, Poelstra A, Timón J, Wuille P (2014) Enabling blockchain innovations with pegged sidechains., pp 72
  35. 35.
    Bahga A, Madisetti V (2016) Blockchain platform for industrial internet of things. J Softw Eng Appl 09:533–546CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Barcena MB, Wueest C (2015) Symantic security response: insecurity in the internet of thingsGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Ben-Sasson E, Chiesa A, Tromer E, Virza M (2014) Succinct non-interactive zero knowledge for a von neumann architecture. In: Proceedings of the 23rd USENIX Conference on Security Symposium, SEC’14Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Benet J (2014) IPFS - content addressed, versioned P2P file systemGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bentov I, Hubácek P, Moran T, Nadler A (2017) Tortoise and hares consensus: the meshcash framework for incentive-compatible, scalable cryptocurrencies. IACR Cryptology ePrint ArchiveGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Biswas K, Muthukkumarasamy V (2016) Securing smart cities using blockchain technology. In: 2016 IEEE 18Th international conference on high performance computing and communications; IEEE 14th international conference on smart city; IEEE 2nd international conference on data science and systems (HPCC/smartcity/DSS), pp 1392–1393Google Scholar
  41. 41.
  42. 42.
  43. 43.
    Bluetooth S (2003) Bluetooth specificationGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Boudguiga A, Bouzerna N, Granboulan L, Olivereau A, Quesnel F, Roger A, Sirdey R (2017) Towards better availability and accountability for iot updates by means of a blockchain. In: 2017 IEEE European symposium on security and privacy workshops (euros PW), pp 50–58Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Brewer E (2012) Cap twelve years later: how the ”rules” have changed. Computer 45(2):23–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Caro MP, Ali MS, Vecchio M, Giaffreda R (2018) Blockchain-based traceability in agri-food supply chain management: a practical implementation. In: 2018 IoT vertical and topical summit on agriculture-tuscany (IOT tuscany). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Casado-Vara R, Chamoso P, De la Prieta F, Prieto J, Corchado JM (2019) Non-linear adaptive closed-loop control system for improved efficiency in IoT-blockchain management. Inf Fusion 49:227–239CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Castro M, Liskov B, et al. (1999) Practical byzantine fault tolerance. In: OSDI, vol 99, pp 173–186Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Cha SC, Chen JF, Su C, Yeh KH (2018) A blockchain connected gateway for BLE-based devices in the internet of things. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Chandra H, Anggadjaja E, Wijaya PS, Gunawan E (2016) Internet of things: over-the-air (ota) firmware update in lightweight mesh network protocol for smart urban development. 22nd Asia-Pacific Conference on Communications (APCC)Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Chen W, Ma M, Ye Y, Zheng Z, Zhou Y (2018) IoT service based on jointcloud blockchain: the case study of smart traveling. In: 2018 IEEE Symposium on service-oriented system engineering (SOSE), pp 216–221Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Chiang M, Zhang T (2016) Fog and Iot: an overview of research opportunities. IEEE Internet of Things JournalGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Christidis K, Devetsikiotis M (2016) Blockchains and smart contracts for the internet of things. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Clack CD, Bakshi VA, Braine L (2016) Smart contract templates: foundations design landscape and research directionsGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Conoscenti M, Vetrò A, Martin JCD (2016) Blockchain for the internet of things: a systematic literature review. In: 2016 IEEE/ACS 13Th international conference of computer systems and applications (AICCSA), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Cui P, Guin U (2019) Countering botnet of things using blockchain-based authenticity framework. In: IEEE Computer society annual symposium on VLSI (ISVLSI)Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Cyr B, Mahmod J, Guin U (2019) Low-cost and secure firmware obfuscation method for protecting electronic systems from cloning. IEEE Internet of Things Journal 6(2):3700–3711CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Danzi P, Kalør AE, Stefanovic C, Popovski P (2017) Analysis of the communication traffic for blockchain synchronization of IoT devices. CoRR arXiv:abs/1711.00540
  59. 59.
    Danzi P, Kalør AE, Stefanović Č, Popovski P (2019) Delay and communication tradeoffs for blockchain systems with lightweight iot clients. IEEE Internet J 6(2):2354–2365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    David B, Gaži P, Kiayias A, Russell A (2018) Ouroboros praos: an adaptively-secure, semi-synchronous proof-of-stake blockchain. In: Advances in cryptology – EUROCRYPTGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    David DS (2014) The ripple protocol consensus algorithmGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Daza V, Pietro RD, Klimek I, Signorini M (2017) Connect: contextual name discovery for blockchain-based services in the iot. In: 2017 IEEE International conference on communications (ICC), pp 1–6Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ding S, Cao J, Li C, Fan K, Li H (2019) A novel attribute-based access control scheme using blockchain for iot. IEEE Access 7:38,431–38,441CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Dodis Y, Yampolskiy A (2005) A verifiable random function with short proofs and keys. In: Public key cryptography - PKC 2005Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Dorri A, Kanhere SS, Jurdak R, Gauravaram P (2017) Blockchain for iot security and privacy: the case study of a smart home. In: 2017 IEEE International conference on pervasive computing and communications workshops (percom workshops), pp 618–623Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Dorri A, Kanhere SS, Jurdak R, Gauravaram P (2017) LSB: a lightweight scalable blockchain for iot security and privacy. CoRR arXiv:1712.02969
  67. 67.
    Douceur JR (2002) The Sybil attack. In: Druschel P, Kaashoek F, Rowstron A (eds) Peer-to-Peer SystemsGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Dukkipati C, Zhang Y, Cheng LC (2018) Decentralized, blockchain based access control framework for the heterogeneous internet of things. In: Proceedings of the Third ACM Workshop on Attribute-Based Access ControlGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Dunkels A, Gronvall B, Voigt T (2004) Contiki - a lightweight and flexible operating system for tiny networked sensors. In: 29th annual IEEE international conference on local computer networksGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Dwivedi AD, Srivastava G, Dhar S, Singh R (2019) A decentralized privacy-preserving healthcare blockchain for iot. SensorsGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Esposito C, Santis AD, Tortora G, Chang H, Choo KR (2018) Blockchain: a panacea for healthcare cloud-based data security and privacy? IEEE Cloud Comput 5(1):31–37CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Eyal I, Gencer AE, Sirer EG, Van Renesse R (2016) Bitcoin-ng: a scalable blockchain protocol. In: Proceedings of the 13th Usenix Conference on Networked Systems Design and Implementation, NSDI’16Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Fan K, Wang S, Ren Y, Yang K, Yan Z, Li H, Yang Y (2018) Blockchain-based secure time protection scheme in iot. IEEE Internet of Things JournalGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Fernández-Caramés TM (2015) An intelligent power outlet system for the smart home of the internet of things. Int J Distrib Sensor Netw 11(11):214,805CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Fernández-Caramés TM, Fraga-Lamas P (2018) A review on the use of blockchain for the internet of things. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Finkenzeller K (2003) RFID handbook: fundamentals and applications in contactless smart cards and identification, 2nd edn. Wiley PublishingGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Fremantle P, Aziz B, Kirkham T (2017) Enhancing iot security and privacy with distributed ledgers - a position paper. In: Proceedings of the 2nd International Conference on the Internet of Things, Big Data and Security. SCITEPRESS – Science and Technology PublicationsGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Gai K, Wu Y, Zhu L, Qiu M, Shen M (2019) Privacy-preserving energy trading using consortium blockchain in smart grid. IEEE Transactions on Industrial InformaticsGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Gao J, Asamoah KO, Sifah EB, Smahi A, Xia Q, Xia H, Zhang X, Dong G (2018) Gridmonitoring: secured sovereign blockchain based monitoring on smart grid. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Gao J, Asamoah KO, Sifah EB, Smahi A, Xia Q, Xia H, Zhang X, Dong G (2018) Gridmonitoring: secured sovereign blockchain based monitoring on smart grid. IEEE Access 6:9917–9925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Gartner says 8.4 billion connected ”things” will be in use in 2017, up 31 percent from 2016. (2017)
  82. 82.
    Gassend B, Clarke D, Van Dijk M, Devadas S (2002) Silicon physical random functions. In: Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security (CCS). ACMGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Gilad Y, Hemo R, Micali S, Vlachos G, Zeldovich N (2017) Algorand: Scaling byzantine agreements for cryptocurrencies. In: Proceedings of the 26th Symposium on Operating Systems Principles, SOSP ’17Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Gilchrist A (2016) Industry 4.0: the industrial internet of things, 1st edn. apress, BerkelyCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Griggs KN, Ossipova O, Kohlios CP, Baccarini AN, Howson EA, Hayajneh T (2018) Healthcare blockchain system using smart contracts for secure automated remote patient monitoring. J Med Syst 42(7):130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Guajardo J, Kumar SS, Schrijen GJ, Tuyls P (2007) Fpga intrinsic pufs and their use for ip protection. In: International workshop on cryptographic hardware and embedded systems. SpringerGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Guan Z, Si G, Zhang X, Wu L, Guizani N, Du X, Ma Y (2018) Privacy-preserving and efficient aggregation based on blockchain for power grid communications in smart communities. IEEE Commun Mag 56 (7):82–88CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Gubbi J, Buyya R, Marusic S, Palaniswami M (2013) Internet of things (Iot): a vision, architectural elements, and future directions Future generation computer systemsGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Guin U, Asadizanjani N, Tehranipoor M (2019) Standards for hardware security. GetMobile: Mob Comput Commun 23(1):5–9CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Guin U, Cui P, Skjellum A (2018) Ensuring proof-of-authenticity of Iot edge devices using blockchain technology. In: IEEE International conference on blockchainGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Guin U, DiMase D, Tehranipoor M (2014) Counterfeit integrated circuits: detection, avoidance, and the challenges ahead. Journal of Electronic Testing (1)Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Guin U, Huang K, DiMase D, Carulli J, Tehranipoor M, Makris Y (2014) Counterfeit integrated circuits: a rising threat in the global semiconductor supply chain. Proceedings of the IEEEGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Guin U, Singh A, Alam M, Canedo J, Skjellum A (2018) A secure low-cost edge device authentication scheme for the internet of things. In: International conference on VLSI designGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Gungor VC, Sahin D, Kocak T, Ergut S, Buccella C, Cecati C, Hancke GP (2011) Smart grid technologies: communication technologies and standards. IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, pp 7Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Guo R, Shi H, Zhao Q, Zheng D (2018) Secure attribute-based signature scheme with multiple authorities for blockchain in electronic health records systems. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Gupta Y, Shorey R, Kulkarni D, Tew J (2018) The applicability of blockchain in the internet of things. pp 561– 564Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    Hammi MT, Hammi B, Bellot P, Serhrouchni A (2018) Bubbles of trust: a decentralized blockchain-based authentication system for iot. Comput Secur 78:126–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Han D, Kim H, Jang J (2017) Blockchain based smart door lock system. In: 2017 International conference on information and communication technology convergence (ICTC)Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Han R, Gramoli V, Xu X (2018) Evaluating blockchains for iot. In: 2018 9Th IFIP international conference on new technologies, mobility and security (NTMS)Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hardjono T, Smith N (2016) Cloud-based commissioning of constrained devices using permissioned blockchains. In: Proceedings of the 2nd ACM international workshop on IoT privacy, trust, and security, pp 29–36. ACMGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Hendricks J, Van Doorn L (2004) Secure bootstrap is not enough: Shoring up the trusted computing baseGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Huang J, Kong L, Chen G, Wu MY, Liu X, Zeng P (2019) Towards secure industrial Iot: blockchain system with credit-based consensus mechanism. IEEE Transactions on Industrial InformaticsGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Huckle S, Bhattacharya R, White M, Beloff N (2016) Internet of things, blockchain and shared economy applications. Procedia Comput Sci 98:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Ibba S, Pinna A, Seu M, Pani FE (2017) Citysense: blockchain-oriented smart cities. In: Proceedings of the XP2017 Scientific Workshops, XP’17Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    IBM: Integrate waston IoT with blockchain.
  106. 106.
    IETF: Transmission control protocol (1981)
  107. 107.
  108. 108.
    Islam MN, Kundu S (2019) Enabling ic traceability via blockchain pegged to embedded puf. ACM Trans Des Autom Electron Syst (TODAES) 24(3):36Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Jae K Tendermint: consensus without miningGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Jia X, Feng Q, Fan T, Lei Q (2012) Rfid technology and its applications in internet of things (IoT). In: 2012 2Nd international conference on consumer electronics, communications and networks (CECNet)Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Khan MA, Salah K (2018) Iot security: review, blockchain solutions, and open challenges. Fut Gener Comput Syst 82:395–411CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Kim JY, Hu W, Shafagh H, Jha S (2018) Seda: Secure over-the-air code dissemination protocol for the internet of things. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure ComputingGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Kosba A, Miller A, Shi E, Wen Z, Papamanthou C (2016) Hawk: the blockchain model of cryptography and privacy-preserving smart contracts. In: 2016 IEEE Symposium on security and privacy (SP)Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Kravitz DW, Cooper J (2017) Securing user identity and transactions symbiotically: Iot meets blockchain, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Kshetri N (2017) Can blockchain strengthen the internet of things? IT Prof 19(4):68–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Lamport L, Shostak RE, Pease MC (1982) The byzantine generals problem. ACM Trans. Program. Lang SystGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Laszka A, Dubey A, Walker M, Schmidt D (2017) Providing privacy, safety, and security in iot-based transactive energy systems using distributed ledgers. In: Proceedings of the Seventh International Conference on the Internet of Things, IoT’17Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Lee I, Lee K (2015) The internet of things (iot): applications, investments and challenges for enterprises 58Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Lee M, Hwang J, Yoe H (2013) Agricultural production system based on iot. In: 2013 IEEE 16Th international conference on computational science and engineering, pp 833–837Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Lei A, Cruickshank H, Cao Y, Asuquo P, Ogah CPA, Sun Z (2017) Blockchain-based dynamic key management for heterogeneous intelligent transportation systems. IEEE Internet of Things JournalGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Leng K, Bi Y, Jing L, Fu HC, Van Nieuwenhuyse I (2018) Research on agricultural supply chain system with double chain architecture based on blockchain technology. Futur Gener Comput Syst 86:641–649CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Levis P, Madden S, Polastre J, Szewczyk R, Whitehouse K, Woo A, Gay D, Hill J, Welsh M, Brewer E, Culler D (2005) TinyOS: an operating system for sensor networksGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Li W, Andreina S, Bohli JM, Karame G (2017) Securing proof-of-stake blockchain protocols. In: Garcia-Alfaro J, Navarro-arribas G, Hartenstein H, Herrera-Joancomartí J (eds) Data privacy management, cryptocurrencies and blockchain technologyGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Li X, Jiang P, Chen T, Luo X, Wen Q (2017) A survey on the security of blockchain systems. Future Generation Computer SystemsGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Li Z, Kang J, Yu R, Ye D, Deng Q, Zhang Y (2017) Consortium blockchain for secure energy trading in industrial internet of things. IEEE Transactions on Industrial InformaticsGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Liam B, William JB, Jonathan C, Owen L (2018) Applications of blockchain within healthcare. In: Blockchain in healthcare today, vol 1Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Liang G, Weller SR, Luo F, Zhao J, Dong ZY (2018) Distributed blockchain-based data protection framework for modern power systems against cyber attacks. IEEE Transactions on Smart GridGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Liang X, Zhao J, Shetty S, Li D (2017) Towards data assurance and resilience in iot using blockchain. In: IEEE Military communications conference (MILCOM)Google Scholar
  129. 129.
    Liang X, Zhao J, Shetty S, Liu J, Li D (2017) Integrating blockchain for data sharing and collaboration in mobile healthcare applications. In: 2017 IEEE 28th annual international symposium on personal, indoor, and mobile radio communications (PIMRC), pp 1–5Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    Lim J, Kim Y, Yoo C (2019) Chainveri: Blockchain-based firmware verification system for iot environment. In: 2018 IEEE International conference on blockchain (blockchain-2018) (to appear inGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Lin J, Shen Z, Zhang A, Chai Y (2018) Blockchain and iot based food traceability for smart agriculture. In: Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Crowd Science and Engineering. ACM, pp 3Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    Lin YP, Petway JR, Anthony J, Mukhtar H, Liao SW, Chou CF, Ho Y (2017) Blockchain: the evolutionary next step for ict e-agricultureGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Liu B, Yu XL, Chen S, Xu X, Zhu L (2017) Blockchain based data integrity service framework for iot data. In: IEEE International conference on web services (ICWS)Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Liu S, Wu J, Long C (2018) Iot meets blockchain: parallel distributed architecture for data storage and sharing. In: IEEE International conference on blockchainGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Lundqvist T, de Blanche A, Andersson HRH (2017) Thing-to-thing electricity micro payments using blockchain technology. In: Global internet of things summit (GIoTS)Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Ma M, Shi G, Li F (2019) Privacy-oriented blockchain-based distributed key management architecture for hierarchical access control in the iot scenario. IEEE Access 7:34,045– 34,059CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Mazières D (2015) The stellar consensus protocol: a federated model for internet-level consensusGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Media Q Airbnb just acquired a team of bitcoin and blockchain experts,
  139. 139.
    Merkle RC (1988) A digital signature based on a conventional encryption function. In: A conference on the theory and applications of cryptographic techniques on advances in cryptology, CRYPTO ’87Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Mettler M (2016) Blockchain technology in healthcare: the revolution starts here. In: 2016 IEEE 18th international conference on e-health networking, applications and services (healthcom), pp 1–3Google Scholar
  141. 141.
    Micali S, Rabin M, Vadhan S (1999) Verifiable random functions. In: 40th annual symposium on foundations of computer science (cat. no.99CB37039)Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Michael del C Ethereum executes blockchain hard fork to return dao funds.
  143. 143.
    Miller D (2018) Blockchain and the internet of things in the industrial sector. IT Prof 20(3):15–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Mondragon AEC, Mondragon CEC, Coronado ES (2018) Exploring the applicability of blockchain technology to enhance manufacturing supply chains in the composite materials industry. In: 2018 IEEE International conference on applied system invention (ICASI), pp 1300–1303Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Mukhopadhyay U, Skjellum A, Hambolu O, Oakley J, Yu L, Brooks R (2016) A brief survey of cryptocurrency systems. In: 2016 14th annual conference on privacy, security and trust (PST), pp 745–752Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Nakamoto S (2008) Bitcoin: a peer-to-peer electronic cash system,
  147. 147.
    Nam T, Pardo TA (2011) Conceptualizing smart city with dimensions of technology, people, and institutions. In: Proceedings of the 12th Annual International Digital Government Research Conference: Digital Government Innovation in Challenging Times, dg.o ’11, pp 282–291Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Neisse R, Steri G, Nai-Fovino I (2017) A blockchain-based approach for data accountability and provenance tracking. In: Proceedings of the 12th International Conference on Availability, Reliability and Security. ACM, pp14Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Novo O (2018) Blockchain meets iot: an architecture for scalable access management in iot. IEEE Internet J PP(99):1–1Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Olleros FX, Zhegu M, Olleros FX, Zhegu M (2016) 11 blockchain technology: principles and applications. Edward Elgar Publishing, IncorporatedGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ouaddah A, Kalam AAE, Ouahman AA (2016) Fairaccess: a new blockchain-based access control framework for the internet of things. Security and Communication NetworksGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Ouaddah A, Mousannif H, Elkalam AA, Ouahman AA (2017) Access control in the internet of things: big challenges and new opportunities. Computer NetworksGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Park J, Kim K (2017) Tm-coin: trustworthy management of tcb measurements in iot. pp 654–659Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Pham HL, Tran TH, Nakashima Y (2018) A secure remote healthcare system for hospital using blockchain smart contract. In: IEEE Globecom workshops (GC wkshps). IEEEGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Pinchen C, Ujjwal G Countering botnet of things using blockchain-based authenticity framework. To AppearGoogle Scholar
  156. 156.
    Pinno OJA, Gregio ARA, Bona LCED (2017) Controlchain: Blockchain as a central enabler for access control authorizations in the iot. In: GLOBECOM 2017 - 2017 IEEE Global communications conference, pp 1–6Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Rahman MA, Rashid MM, Hossain MS, Hassanain E, Alhamid MF, Guizani M (2019) Blockchain and iot-based cognitive edge framework for sharing economy services in a smart city. IEEE Access 7:18,611–18,621CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Rahman RA, Shah B (2016) Security analysis of iot protocols: a focus in coap. In: 2016 3Rd MEC international conference on big data and smart city (ICBDSC)Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Rivera R, Robledo JG, Larios VM, Avalos JM (2017) How digital identity on blockchain can contribute in a smart city environment. In: 2017 International smart cities conference (ISC2), pp 1–4Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Robertson J, Riley M (2018) The big hack: how China used a tiny chip to infiltrate u.s companiesGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Salahuddin MA, Al-Fuqaha A, Guizani M, Shuaib K, Sallabi F (2017) Softwarization of internet of things infrastructure for secure and smart healthcare. Computer 50(7):74–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Samaniego M, Deters R (2017) Virtual resources & blockchain for configuration management in iotGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Sanju S, Sankaran S, Achuthan K (2018) Energy comparison of blockchain platforms for internet of things. In: 2018 IEEE International symposium on smart electronic systems (iSES)(formerly inis). IEEE, pp 235–238Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Sasson EB, Chiesa A, Garman C, Green M, Miers I, Tromer E, Virza M (2014) Zerocash: decentralized anonymous payments from bitcoin. In: 2014 IEEE Symposium on security and privacy (SP), vol. 00Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Schollmeier R (2001) A definition of peer-to-peer networking for the classification of peer-to-peer architectures and applications. In: 2001. Proceedings. First international conference on Peer-to-peer computing. IEEE, pp 101–102Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Schwab K (2016) The fourth industrial revolutionGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Shafagh H, Burkhalter L, Hithnawi A, Duquennoy S (2017) Towards blockchain-based auditable storage and sharing of iot data. Proceedings of the 2017 on Cloud Computing Security Workshop, pp 45–50Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Sharma PK, Chen MY, Park JH (2018) A software defined fog node based distributed blockchain cloud architecture for iot. IEEE Access 6:115–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Sharma PK, Moon SY, Park JH (2017) Block-vn: a distributed blockchain based vehicular network architecture in smart city. JIPS 13:184–195Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Sharma PK, Park JH (2018) Blockchain based hybrid network architecture for the smart city. Fut Gener Comput Syst 86:650–655CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Sharma PK, Rathore S, Park JH (2018) Distarch-scnet: blockchain-based distributed architecture with li-fi communication for a scalable smart city network. IEEE Consum Electron Mag 7(4):55–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Sharma PK, Singh S, Jeong YS, Park JH (2017) Distblocknet: a distributed blockchains-based secure SDN architecture for iot networks. IEEE Communications MagazineGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    She W, Gu ZH, Lyu XK, Liu Q, Tian Z, Liu W (2019) Homomorphic consortium blockchain for smart home system sensitive data privacy preserving. IEEE AccessGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Shen M, Tang X, Zhu L, Du X, Guizani M (2019) Privacy-preserving support vector machine training over blockchain-based encrypted iot data in smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things JournalGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Shrouf F, Ordieres J, Miragliotta G (2014) Smart factories in industry 4.0: a review of the concept and of energy management approached in production based on the internet of things paradigm. In: 2014 IEEE International conference on industrial engineering and engineering managementGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Sikorski JJ, Haughton J, Kraft M (2017) Blockchain technology in the chemical industry: machine-to-machine electricity market. Applied EnergyGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Sompolinsky Y, Lewenberg Y, Zohar A (2016) Spectre: A fast and scalable cryptocurrency protocol. IACR Cryptology ePrint ArchiveGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    Suh G, Devadas S (2007) Physical unclonable functions for device authentication and secret key generation. In: Proceedings of ACM/IEEE on design automation conferenceGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    Sun J, Yan J, Zhang KZK (2016) Blockchain-based sharing services: what blockchain technology can contribute to smart cities. Finan Innov 2(1):26CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  180. 180.
    Swan M (2015) Blockchain: blueprint for a new economy, 1st edn. O’Reilly Media, IncGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Swanson T Consensus-as-a-service: a brief report on the emergence of permissioned, distributed ledger system.
  182. 182.
    Tang B, Kang H, Fan J, Li Q, Sandhu R (2019) Iot passport: a blockchain-based trust framework for collaborative internet-of-things. In: Proceedings of the 24th ACM Symposium on Access Control Models and Technologies. ACM, pp 83–92Google Scholar
  183. 183.
    Tao F, Cheng Y, Xu L, Zhang L, Li BH (2014) Cciot-cmfg: cloud computing and internet of things-based cloud manufacturing service system. IEEE Trans Indust Inf 10(2):1435–1442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Tao F, Zhang L, Venkatesh VC, Luo Y, Cheng Y (2011) Cloud manufacturing: a computing and service-oriented manufacturing model. Proc Instit Mech Eng Part B: J Eng Manuf 225(10):1969–1976CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Tasca P, Thanabalasingham T, Tessone CJ (2017) Ontology of blockchain technologies. principles of identification and classification. CoRR arXiv:1708.04872
  186. 186.
    Tehranipoor M, Guin U, Bhunia S (2017) Invasion of the hardware snatchers. IEEE SpectrumGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Tehranipoor M, Guin U, Forte D (2015) Counterfeit integrated circuits: detection and avoidance. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Teslya N, Ryabchikov I (2017) Blockchain-based platform architecture for industrial iot, pp 321–329Google Scholar
  189. 189.
    Tian F (2016) An agri-food supply chain traceability system for China based on rfid and blockchain technology. In: 2016 13Th international conference on service systems and service management (ICSSSM)Google Scholar
  190. 190.
    Tian F (2017) A supply chain traceability system for food safety based on haccp, blockchain and internet of things. In: 2017 International conference on service systems and service managementGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Trappe W, Howard R, Moore RS (2015) Low-energy security: limits and opportunities in the internet of things. IEEE Security PrivacyGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Valerio P Borderhawk found counterfeit iot devices installed (2018).
  193. 193.
    Vukolić M (2015) The quest for scalable blockchain fabric: proof-of-work vs. bft replication. In: International workshop on open problems in network security. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Walker MA, Dubey A, Laszka A, Schmidt DC (2017) Platibart: a platform for transactive iot blockchain applications with repeatable testing. In: Proceedings of the 4th Workshop on Middleware and Applications for the Internet of Things, M4IoT ’17, pp 17–22Google Scholar
  195. 195.
    Wang W, Singh A, Guin U, Chatterjee A (2018) Exploiting power supply ramp rate for calibrating cell strength in SRAM PUFs. In: IEEE Latin-american test symposiumGoogle Scholar
  196. 196.
    Wood G Yellow paper: Ethereum: a secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger.
  197. 197.
    Wright CS, Savanah S Operating system for blockchain iot devices (2019). US Patent App 16/097,497Google Scholar
  198. 198.
    Wu G, Talwar S, Johnsson K, Himayat N, Johnson KD (2011) M2m: from mobile to embedded internet. IEEE Communications Magazine 49(4):36–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  199. 199.
    Xu R, Chen Y, Blasch E, Chen G (2018) Blendcac: a blockchain-enabled decentralized capability-based access control for iots. In: 2018 IEEE International conference on blockchain (blockchain-2018)Google Scholar
  200. 200.
    Xu X (2012) From cloud computing to cloud manufacturing. robotics and Computer-Integrated ManufacturingGoogle Scholar
  201. 201.
    Xu X, Weber I, Staples M, Zhu L, Bosch J, Bass L, Pautasso C, Rimba P (2017) A taxonomy of blockchain-based systems for architecture design. In: 2017 IEEE International conference on software architecture (ICSA)Google Scholar
  202. 202.
    Xu Y, Ren J, Wang G, Zhang C, Yang J, Zhang Y (2019) A blockchain-based non-repudiation network computing service scheme for industrial iot. IEEE Transactions on Industrial InformaticsGoogle Scholar
  203. 203.
    Yli-Huumo J, Ko D, Choi S, Park S, Smolander K (2016) Where is current research on blockchain technology?—a systematic review. PLOS ONE 11(10):1–27CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 204.
    Yuan Y, Wang FY (2016) Towards blockchain-based intelligent transportation systems. In: IEEE 19Th international conference on intelligent transportation systems (ITSC)Google Scholar
  205. 205.
    Yue X, Wang H, Jin D, Li M, Jiang W (2016) Healthcare data gateways: found healthcare intelligence on blockchain with novel privacy risk control. J Med Syst 40(10):218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 206.
    Zanella A, Bui N, Castellani A, Vangelista L, Zorzi M (2014) Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet J 1(1):22–32CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  207. 207.
    Zhang Y, Guin U (2019) End-to-end traceability of ics in component supply chain for fighting against recycling. IEEE Transactions on Information Forensics and SecurityGoogle Scholar
  208. 208.
    Zhang Y, Wen J (2017) The iot electric business model: using blockchain technology for the internet of things. Peer-to-Peer Netw Appl 10(4):983–994CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  209. 209.
    Zhang Y, Xu X, Liu A, Lu Q, Xu L, Tao F (2019) Blockchain-based trust mechanism for iot-based smart manufacturing system. IEEE Transactions on Computational Social SystemsGoogle Scholar
  210. 210.
    Zhang Z, Cho MCY, Wang C, Hsu C, Chen C, Shieh S (2014) Iot security: ongoing challenges and research opportunities. In: 2014 IEEE 7Th international conference on service-oriented computing and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  211. 211.
    Zhang ZK, Cho MCY, Wang CW, Hsu CW, Chen CK, Shieh S (2014) Iot security: ongoing challenges and research opportunities. In: 2014 IEEE 7th international conference on service-oriented computing and applicationsGoogle Scholar
  212. 212.
    chun Zhao J, feng Zhang J, Feng Y, xin Guo J (2010) The study and application of the iot technology in agriculture. In: 2010 3Rd international conference on computer science and information technologyGoogle Scholar
  213. 213.
    Zheng Z, Xie S, Dai H, Chen X, Wang H (2017) An overview of blockchain technology: architecture, consensus, and future trends. In: 2017 IEEE International congress on big data (bigdata congress)Google Scholar
  214. 214.
    Zheng Z, Xie S, Dai HN, Wang H (2016) Blockchain challenges and opportunities: a survey Work Pap.–2016Google Scholar
  215. 215.
    Zhou L, Wang L, Sun Y, Lv P (2018) Beekeeper: a blockchain-based iot system with secure storage and homomorphic computation. IEEE Access 6:43,472–43,488CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  216. 216.
    Zhu S, Li W, Li H, Tian L, Luo G, Cai Z (2018) Coin hopping attack in blockchain-based iot. IEEE Internet of Things JournalGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Computer Science and Software Engineering (CSSE)Auburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  2. 2.Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering (ECE)Auburn UniversityAuburnUSA
  3. 3.SimCenter, and the Department of Computer Science and EngineeringThe University of Tennessee at ChattanoogaChattanoogaUSA

Personalised recommendations