Lasers in Dental Science

, Volume 2, Issue 4, pp 213–219 | Cite as

Effect of duration of Er,Cr:YSGG laser etching on dentin morphology: an in vitro study

  • F. Mahdisiar
  • A. Mirzaei
  • A. Fallah
  • N. Gutknecht
  • S. AkhoundanEmail author
Original Article



The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different durations of Er,Cr:YSGG laser irradiation on dentin morphology using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

Materials and methods

Twenty-five extracted human-impacted permanent third molars were cut below the occlusal pit and fissure level, perpendicular to the long axis of the tooth. An occlusal area measuring 5 mm in length and 5 mm in width was prepared on each tooth for laser irradiation. The teeth were randomly divided into five groups for different durations of laser irradiation: T1, 5 s; T2, 10 s; T3, 20 s; T4, 40 s; T0, no laser irradiation. The effects of laser application on dentin surfaces were evaluated using SEM at × 80 and × 500 magnifications. Also, the presence/absence of smear layer was scored according to SEM findings. Score 0 indicated the absence and score 1 indicated the presence of smear layer.


Forty seconds of irradiation resulted in an irregular dentin surface without smear layer, with open dentinal tubules and without enlargement.


Laser preparation of dentin creates a retentive surface for composite restoration, without the problems caused by smear layer after conventional preparation. Also, the disadvantages of acid etching can be avoided as such.


Er,Cr:YSGG laser Dentin conditioning SEM Dentin morphology Phosphoric acid etching 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.

Informed consent

This article was done on extracted human third molars, and it does not include any human participant. For this type of study, formal consent is not required.

Supplementary material

41547_2018_38_MOESM1_ESM.docx (34 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 33 kb)


  1. 1.
    Shahabi S, Chiniforoush N, Bahramian H, Monzavi A, Baghalian A, Kharazifard M (2012) Comparison of tensile bond strength of composite to dentin in conventional or laser-prepared cavities (Er;Cr:YSGG). J Oral Laser Appl 10:107–110Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Hibst R (2002) Laser for caries removal and cavity preparation: state of the art and future directions. J Oral Laser Appl 2(4):202–212Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Valian A, Salehi E (2013) Fundamentals of operative dentistry Summitt’s. In: Hilton T. pp 434–435Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pashley DH, Tay FR, Breschi L, Tjäderhane L, Carvalho RM, Carrilho M, Tezvergil-Mutluay A (2011) State of the art etch-and-rinse adhesives. Dent Mater 27:1–16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Gwinnett AJ, Matsui A (1967) A study of enamel adhesives. The physical relationship between enamel and adhesive. Arch Oral Biol 12:1615–1620CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Fusayama T (1980) New concepts in operative dentistry. Quintessence, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Eghbali F (2012) Craig’s restorative dental materials. In: Ronald A, John M. pp 332–333Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Marshall SJ, Bayne SC, Baier R, Tomsia AP, Marshall GW (2010) A review of adhesion science. Dent Mater 26(2):e11–e16CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Perdigao J (2007) New developments in dental adhesion. Dent Clin N Am 51(2):333–357CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Liu Y, Tjäderhane L, Breschi L, Mazzoni A, Li N, Mao J, Pashley DH, Tay FR (2011) Limitations in bonding to dentin and experimental strategies to prevent bond degradation. J Dent Res 90:953–968CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Breschi L, Mazzoni A, Ruggeri A, Cadenaro M, Di Lenarda R, De Stefano Dorigo E (2008) Dental adhesion review: aging and stability of the bonded interface. Dent Mater 24:90–101CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Lopes GC, Vieira LC, Araújo E, Bruggmann T, Zucco J, Oliveira G (2011) Effect of dentin age and acid etching time on dentin bonding. J Adhes Dent 13:139–145PubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Ergücü Z, Çelik EU, Ünlü N, Türkün M, Özer F (2009) Effect of Er,Cr:YSGG laser on the microtensile bond strength of two different adhesives to the sound and caries-affected dentin. Oper Dent 34(4):460–466CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Beer F, Buchmair A, Körpert W, Marvastian L, Wernisch J, Moritz A (2012) Morphology of resin–dentin interfaces after Er,Cr:YSGG laser and acid etching preparation and application of different bonding systems. Lasers Med Sci 27:835–841CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Lee BS, Lin PY, Chen MH, Hsieh TT, Lin CP, Lai JY, Lan WH (2007) Tensile bond strength of Er, Cr:YSGG laser-irradiated human dentin and analysis of dentin–resin interface. Dent Mat 23:570–578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Eghbali F (2009) Low level or theraputic lasers. In: Fekrazad R (ed) Applying low level laser therapy in dentistry. Tehran: Shayan Nemoodar 44–45:19–20Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Van As G (2004) Erbium lasers in dentistry. Dent Clin N Am 48:1017–1059CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ekworapoj P, Sidhu SK, McCabe JF (2007) Effect of different power parameters of Er, Cr:YSGG laser on human dentine. Laser Med Sci 22:175–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Benderli Y, Gökçe M, Kazak M, Gürsoy T (2013) SEM comparison of acid etching, ER,CR:YSGG laser and combined treatment on dentin surfaces. Balk J Stom 17:79–86Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Ramos ACB, Esteves-Oliveira M, Arana-Chavez VE, et al (2008) Adhesives bonded to erbium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet laser-irradiated dentin: transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and tensile bond strength analysis. J Lasers Med Sci 25:181–189CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Shahabi S, Chiniforoush N, Fekrazad R, Fatemi SM (2010) Comparison of tensile bond strength of composite to dentin in conventional or laser-prepared cavities (Er;Cr:YSGG). J Oral Laser Appl 10:107–110Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Keller U, Hibst R (1989) Experimental studies of the application of Er:YAG laser on dental hard substances: II. Light microscopic and SEM investigations. Lasers Surg Med 9(4):345–351CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Aoki A, Ishikawa I, Yamada T, Otsuki M, Watanabe H, Tagami J, Ando Y, Yamamoto H (1998) Comparison between Er:YAG laser and conventional technique for root caries treatment in vitro. J Dent Res 77:1404–1414CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Schoop U, Kluger W, Moritz A, Nedjelik N, Georgopoulos A, Sperr W (2004) Bacterial effect of different laser systems in deep layers of dentin. Lasers Surg Med 35(2):111–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Niu W, Eto J, Kimura Y, Takeda FH, Matsumoto K (1998) A study of microleakage after resin filling of class V cavities prepared by Er:YAG laser. J Clin Laser Med Surg 16(4):227–231CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Tachibana A, Marques MM, Soler JMP, Matos AB (2008) Erbium, chromium:yttrium scandium gallium garnet laser for caries removal: influence on bonding of a self-etching adhesive system. Lasers Med Sci 23:435–441CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • F. Mahdisiar
    • 1
  • A. Mirzaei
    • 2
  • A. Fallah
    • 3
  • N. Gutknecht
    • 3
  • S. Akhoundan
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Dental Branch, Department of Restorative DentistryIslamic Azad UniversityTehranIran
  2. 2.Laser Research Center of Hamadan Medical Science UniversityHamadanIran
  3. 3.Clinic of Conservative Dentistry, Periodontology and PreventionUniversity Hospital of the RWTH AachenAachenGermany

Personalised recommendations