Advertisement

Journal of Well-Being Assessment

, Volume 2, Issue 1, pp 1–19 | Cite as

The Structural Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Mental Health Continuum – Short Form (MHC-SF) in a Large Canadian Sample

  • Paige Lamborn
  • Kenneth M. CramerEmail author
  • Amber Riberdy
Original Research

Abstract

The Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF; Keyes 2005a) is a 14-item questionnaire designed to measure three components of positive mental health: emotional well-being (EWB), social well-being (SWB), and psychological well-being (PWB). Previous studies have proposed various models of mental health using the MHC-SF: a single-factor model, a correlated two-factor model, a correlated three-factor model (EWB, SWB, and PWB), and a bifactor model with three specific dimensions and a general factor, as well as the use of Exploratory Structural Equation Modelling (ESEM) to examine model structure. The present study assessed the suitability of multiple models using confirmatory factor analysis and ESEM in a large Canadian sample (N = 43,020), taken from the Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS; Statistics Canada 2012a). The bifactor ESEM model had the best fit. Measurement invariance testing revealed that the bifactor ESEM model showed strict invariance across gender and ethnic minority status, and weak invariance across four age groupings.

Keywords

Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) Positive mental health Structural equation modeling Mental Health Continuum-Short Form (MHC-SF) 

Notes

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest. For this type of study formal consent is not required. Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.

Supplementary material

41543_2018_7_MOESM1_ESM.docx (51 kb)
ESM 1 (DOCX 50 kb)

References

  1. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2009). Exploratory structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 16(3), 397–438.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510903008204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Asparouhov, T., & Muthén, B. (2010). Computing the strictly positive Satorra-Bentler chi-square test in Mplus. Mplus Web Notes, 12. Retrieved from: http://www.statmodel.com/examples/webnotes/webnote12.pdf.
  3. Bradburn, N. M. (1969). The structure of psychological well-being [monograph]. National Opinion Research, Retrieved from: http://www.norc.org/PDFs/publications/BradburnN_Struc_Psych_Well_Being.pdf
  4. Byrne, B. M., & Stewart, S. M. (2006). Teacher's corner: The MACS approach to testing for multigroup invariance of a second-order structure: A walk through the process. Structural Equation Modeling, 13(2), 287–321.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1302_7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Chen, F. F. (2007). Sensitivity of goodness of fit indexes to lack of measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 14(3), 464–504.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705510701301834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Chen, F. F., Sousa, K. H., & West, S. G. (2005). Teacher's corner: Testing measurement invariance of second-order factor models. Structural Equation Modeling, 12(3), 471–492.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1203_7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cheung, G. W., & Rensvold, R. B. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling, 9(2), 233–255.  https://doi.org/10.1207/S15328007SEM0902_5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cohen, J. (1992). A power primer. Psychological Bulletin, 112(1), 155–159.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.112.1.155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. de Bruin, G. P., & du Plessis, G. A. (2015). Bifactor analysis of the mental health continuum—Short form (MHC—SF). Psychological Reports, 116(2), 438–446.  https://doi.org/10.2466/03.02.PR0.116k20w6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Diener, E., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75. Retrieved from: http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.uwindsor.ca/10.1207/s15327752jpa4901_13
  11. Diener, E., Wirtz, D., Biswas-Diener, R., Tov, W., Kim-Prieto, C., Choi, D. W., & Oishi, S. (2009). New measures of well-being. In E. Diener (Ed.), Assessing well-being: The collected works of Ed Diener (pp. 247–266). Dordrecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Disabato, D. J., Goodman, F. R., Kashdan, T. B., Short, J. L., & Jarden, A. (2016). Different types of well-being? A cross-cultural examination of hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Psychological Assessment, 28(5), 471–482.  https://doi.org/10.1037/pas0000209.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Echeverría, G., Torres, M., Pedrals, N., Padilla, O., Rigotti, A., & Bitran, M. (2017). Validation of a Spanish version of the mental health continuum-short form questionnaire. Psicothema, 29(1), 96–102.  https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothem2016.3.Google Scholar
  14. Finifter, B. M. (1972). The generation of confidence: Evaluating research findings by random subsample replication. Sociological Methodology, 4, 112–175.  https://doi.org/10.2307/270731.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gallagher, M. W., Lopez, S. J., & Preacher, K. J. (2009). The hierarchical structure of well-being. Journal of Personality, 77(4).  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6494.2009.00573.x.
  16. Graham, C., & Chattopadhyay, S. (2013). Gender and well-being around the world. International Journal of Happiness and Development, 1(2), 212–232.  https://doi.org/10.1504/IJHD.2013.055648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Guo, C., Tomson, G., Guo, J., Li, X., Keller, C., & Söderqvist, F. (2015). Psychometric evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Chinese adolescents–a methodological study. Health and Quality of Life Outcomes, 13(198), 1–9.  https://doi.org/10.1186/s12955-015-0394-2.Google Scholar
  18. Hides, L., Quinn, C., Stoyanov, S., Cockshaw, W., Mitchell, T., & Kavanagh, D. J. (2016). Is the mental wellbeing of young Australians best represented by a single, multidimensional or bifactor model? Psychiatry Research, 241, 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.psychres.2016.04.077.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hu, L. T., & Bentler, P. M. (1999). Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: Conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Structural Equation Modeling: A Multidisciplinary Journal, 6(1), 1–55.  https://doi.org/10.1080/10705519909540118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hubka, D., & Lakaski, C. (2013). Developing research and surveillance for positive mental health: A Canadian process for conceptualization. International Journal of Mental Health Addiction, 11, 658–671.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11469-013-9443-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Huta, V., & Ryan, R. M. (2010). Pursuing pleasure or virtue: The differential and overlapping well-being benefits of hedonic and eudaimonic motives. Journal of Happiness Studies, 11(6), 735–762.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-009-9171-4.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. IBM Corp. (2011). IBM SPSS statistics for windows, version 20.0. Armonk: IBM Corp.Google Scholar
  23. Joshanloo, M., & Lamers, S. M. (2016). Reinvestigation of the factor structure of the MHC-SF in the Netherlands: Contributions of exploratory structural equation modeling. Personality and Individual Differences, 97, 8–12.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2016.02.089.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Joshanloo, M., Wissing, M. P., Khumalo, I. P., & Lamers, S. M. A. (2013). Measurement invariance of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) across three cultural groups. Personality and Individual Differences, 55, 755–759.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2013.06.002.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Jovanović, V. (2015). Structural validity of the mental health continuum-short form: The bifactor model of emotional, social and psychological well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 75, 154–159.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.11.026.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Karaś, D., Cieciuch, J., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2014). The polish adaptation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF). Personality and Individual Differences, 69, 104–109.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.05.011.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Keyes, C. L. M. (1998). Social well-being. Social Psychology Quarterly, 61(2), 121–140. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/2787065.
  28. Keyes, C. L. M. (2002). The mental health continuum: From languishing to flourishing in life. Journal of Health and Social Research, 43, 207–222. Retrieved from: http://www.jstor.org/stable/3090197.
  29. Keyes, C. L. (2005a). The subjective well-being of America's youth: Toward a comprehensive assessment. Adolescent & Family Health, 4(1), 3–11.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539.Google Scholar
  30. Keyes, C. L. M. (2005b). Mental illness and/or mental health? Investigating axioms of the complete state model of health. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 73(3), 539–548.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-006X.73.3.539.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Keyes, C. L. (2007). Promoting and protecting mental health as flourishing: A complementary strategy for improving national mental health. American Psychologist, 62(2), 95–108.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.62.2.95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Keyes, C. L., & Westerhof, G. J. (2012). Chronological and subjective age differences in flourishing mental health and major depressive episode. Aging & Mental Health, 16(1), 67–74.  https://doi.org/10.1080/13607863.2011.596811.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Keyes, C. L. M., Wissing, M., Potgieter, J. P., Temane, M., Kruger, A., & Rooy, S. (2008). Evaluation of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF) in Setswana-speaking south Africans. Clinical Psychology and Psychotherapy, 15, 181–192.  https://doi.org/10.1002/cpp.572.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lamers, S. M. A., Glas, C. A. W., Westerhof, G. J., & Bohlmeijer, E. T. (2012). Longitudinal evaluation of the mental health continuum short form (MHC-SF); measurement invariance across demographics, physical illness, and mental illness. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 28(4), 290–296.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1015-5759/a000109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lamers, S. M. A., Westerhof, G. J., Bohlmeijer, E. T., Klooster, P. M., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2011). Evaluating the psychometric properties of the mental health continuum-short form (MHC-SF). Journal of Clinical Psychology, 67(1), 99–110.  https://doi.org/10.1002/jclp.20741.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Lei, M., & Lomax, R. G. (2005). The effect of varying degrees of nonnormality in structural equation modeling. Structural Equation Modeling, 12(1), 1–27.  https://doi.org/10.1207/s15328007sem1201_1.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Longo, Y., Jovanović, V., Sampaio, D. C. J., & Karaś, D. (2017). The general factor of well-being: Multinational evidence using bifactor ESEM on the mental health continuum-short form. Assessment.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1073191117748394.
  38. Machado, W. L., & Bandeira, D. R. (2015). Positive mental health scale: Validation of the mental health continuum - short form. Universidade de São Francisco, Programa de Pós-Graduação Stricto Sensu em Psicologia, 20(2), 259–274.  https://doi.org/10.1590/1413-82712015200207.Google Scholar
  39. McDonald, R. P. (1970). The theoretical foundations of principal factor analysis, canonical factor analysis, and alpha factor analysis. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 23(1), 1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.2044-8317.1970.tb00432.x. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Menezes, N. M., Georgiades, K., & Boyle, M. H. (2011). The influence of immigrant status and concentration on psychiatric disorder in Canada: A multi-level analysis. Psychological Medicine, 41(10), 2221–2231.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0033291711000213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Meredith, W. (1993). Measurement invariance, factor analysis and factorial invariance. Psychometrika, 58(4), 525–543.  https://doi.org/10.1007/BF02294825.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Marsh, H. W., Morin, A. J., Parker, P. D., & Kaur, G. (2014). Exploratory structural equation modeling: An integration of the best features of exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. Annual Review of Clinical Psychology, 10, 85–110.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev-clinpsy-032813-153700.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Muthén, L. K. & B. O. Muthén. (1998-2015). Mplus (Version 7). Los Angeles: Muthén and Muthén.Google Scholar
  44. Peter, T., Roberts, L. W., & Dengate, J. (2011). Flourishing in life: An empirical test of the dual continua model of mental health and mental illness among Canadian university students. International Journal of Mental Health Promotion, 13(1), 13–22.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14623730.2011.9715646.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Perreira, T. A., Morin, A. J., Hebert, M., Gillet, N., Houle, S. A., & Berta, W. (2018). The short form of the workplace affective commitment multidimensional questionnaire (WACMQ-S): A bifactor-ESEM approach among healthcare professionals. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 106, 62–83.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jvb.2017.12.004.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Petrillo, G., Capone, V., Caso, D., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2015). The mental health continuum - short form (MHC-SF) as a measure of well-being in the Italian context. Social Indicators Research, 121, 291–312.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11205-014-0629-3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Piedmont, R. L. (2014). Inter-item correlations. In A. C. Michalos (Ed.), Encyclopedia of quality of life and well-being research (pp. 3303–3304). Dorerecht: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ministry of Health. (2014a). Economic burden of illness in Canada (Publication No. 130148). Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/publicat/ebic-femc/2005-2008/assets/pdf/ebic-femc-2005-2008-eng.pdf.
  49. Public Health Agency of Canada, Ministry of Health. (2014b). Promoting mental health means promoting the best of ourselves. Retrieved from: http://www.phac-aspc.gc.ca/mh-sm/mhp-psm/index-eng.php.
  50. Rosseel, Y. (2012). Lavaan: An R package for structural equation modeling. Journal of Statistical Software, 48(2), 1–36. Retrieved from: http://www.jstatsoft.org/v48/i02/.
  51. RStudio (2015). RStudio: Integrated development for R (version 1.0.136) [computer software]. Boston. Retrieved from: http://www.rstudio.com/.
  52. Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2001). On happiness and human potentials: A review of research on hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. Annual Review of Psychology, 52(1), 141–166.  https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.psych.52.1.141.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.57.6.1069.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Ryff, C. D., Keyes, C. L., & Hughes, D. L. (2003). Status inequalities, perceived discrimination, and eudaimonic well-being: Do the challenges of minority life hone purpose and growth? Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 44(3), 275–291.  https://doi.org/10.2307/1519779.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Ryff, C. D., & Singer, B. H. (2008). Know thyself and become what you are: A eudaimonic approach to psychological well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 9(1), 13–39.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10902-006-9019-0.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Satorra, A., & Bentler, P. M. (2010). Ensuring positiveness of the scaled difference chi-square test statistic. Psychometrika, 75(2), 243–248.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11336-009-9135-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Schutte, L., & Wissing, M. P. (2017). Clarifying the factor structure of the mental health continuum short form in three languages: A bifactor exploratory structural equation modeling approach. Society and Mental Health, 1–17.  https://doi.org/10.1177/2156869317707793.
  58. Seligman, M. E. P., & Csikszentmihalyi, M. (2000). Positive psychology: An introduction. American Psychologist., 55(1), 5–14.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066X.55.1.5.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Statistics Canada. (2012a). Canadian Community Health Survey, 2012 [Data File]. Available from: http://odesi1.scholarsportal.info.ezproxy.uwindsor.ca/webview/.
  60. Statistics Canada. (2012b). Canadian Community Health Survey – Annual Component (CCHS) [extraneous documents] Retrieved from: http://www23.statcan.gc.ca/imdb/p2SV.pl?Function=getSurvey&SDDS=3226.
  61. Steinmetz, H. (2013). Analyzing observed composite differences across groups: Is partial measurement invariance enough? Methodology: European Journal of Research Methods for the Behavioral and Social Sciences, 9(1), 1.  https://doi.org/10.1027/1614-2241/a000049.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Thompson, M. S., & Green, S. B. (2006). Evaluating between-group differences in latent variable means. In G. Hancock & R. Mueller (Eds.), Structural equation modeling: A second course (pp. 119–169). Greenwich: Information Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  63. Tiwari, S. K., & Wang, J. (2008). Ethnic differences in mental health service use among white, Chinese, south Asian and south east Asian populations living in Canada. Social Psychiatry and Psychiatric Epidemiology, 43(11), 866.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00127-008-0373-6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Vittersø, J., & Søholt, Y. (2011). Life satisfaction goes with pleasure and personal growth goes with interest: Further arguments for separating hedonic and eudaimonic well-being. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 6(4), 326–335.  https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760.2011.584548.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Waterman, A. S. (1993). Two conceptions of happiness: Contrasts of personal expressiveness (eudiamonia) and hedonic enjoyment. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 64(4), 678–691.  https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.64.4.678.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Watson, D., Clark, L. A., & Tellegen, A. (1988). Development and validation of brief measures of positive and negative affect: The PANAS scales. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 54(6), 1063.  https://doi.org/10.1037//0022-3514.54.6.1063.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Westerhof, G. L., & Keyes, C. L. M. (2010). Mental illness and mental health: The two continua model across the lifespan. Journal of Adult Development, 17(2), 110–119.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s10804-009-9082-y.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. You, S., Furlong, M., Felix, E., & O'Malley, M. (2015). Validation of the social and emotional health survey for five sociocultural groups: Multigroup invariance and latent mean analyses. Psychology in the Schools, 52(4), 349–362.  https://doi.org/10.1002/pits.21828.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Yuan, K. H., & Bentler, P. M. (2000). Three likelihood-based methods for mean and covariance structure analysis with nonnormal missing data. Sociological Methodology, 30(1), 165–200.  https://doi.org/10.1111/0081-1750.00078.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG, part of Springer Nature 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paige Lamborn
    • 1
  • Kenneth M. Cramer
    • 1
    Email author
  • Amber Riberdy
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada

Personalised recommendations