Journal of Cognitive Enhancement

, Volume 3, Issue 4, pp 349–358 | Cite as

The Comparative Effects of Two Cognitive Interventions Among Older Adults Residing in Retirement Communities

  • Elizabeth M. HudakEmail author
  • Jerri D. Edwards
  • Ross Andel
  • Jennifer J. Lister
  • Cathy L. McEvoy
  • Christine L. Ruva
Original Research


This study examined the effectiveness of two commercially available cognitive interventions to enhance memory performance among older adults, an adaptive computerized program, Dakim BrainFitness, and a non-adaptive program of pencil-and-paper exercises, Mind Your Mind. Older adults were randomized to Dakim BrainFitness (n = 18), Mind Your Mind (n = 17), or a control (n = 17) condition. Memory outcomes were administered at baseline and post-training. Analyses included 52 older adults with an average age of 82 years old who completed baseline and post-training visits. The Dakim BrainFitness program improved memory as indicated by one measure of immediate recall and both indices of delayed recall (ps < .05). There were no significant differences between the Mind Your Mind and control conditions in memory performance (ps > .05). Dakim BrainFitness training showed potential effectiveness to improve some aspects of memory, while the Mind Your Mind program did not. The effectiveness of different types of cognitive interventions varies. Investigations to delineate the underlying mechanisms of effective techniques are needed.


Memory Cognitive training Cognitive stimulation Adaptive interventions 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

An informed consent statement approved by the University of South Florida Institutional Review Board was signed by all participants.

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral NeurosciencesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  2. 2.School of Aging StudiesUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  3. 3.Department of Communication Sciences and DisordersUniversity of South FloridaTampaUSA
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of South Florida Sarasota-ManateeSarasotaUSA

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