Nuclear Science and Techniques

, 30:142 | Cite as

Radiotherapy-customized head immobilization masks: from modeling and analysis to 3D printing

  • M. A. R. LojaEmail author
  • D. S. Craveiro
  • L. Vieira
  • E. Sousa
  • J. A. Rodrigues
  • R. J. F. Portal


Immobilization devices may be a valuable aid to ensure the improved effectiveness of radiotherapy treatments where constraining the movements of specific anatomical segments is crucial. This need is also present in other situations, specifically when the superposition of various medical images is required for fine identification and characterization of some pathologies. Because of their structural characteristics, existing head immobilization systems may be claustrophobic and very uncomfortable for patients, during both the modeling and usage stages. Because of this, it is important to minimize all the discomforts related to the mask to alleviate patients’ distress and to simultaneously guarantee and maximize the restraint effectiveness of the mask. In the present work, various head immobilization mask models are proposed based on geometrical information extracted from computerized tomography images and from 3D laser scanning point clouds. These models also consider the corresponding connection to a radiotherapy table, as this connection is easily altered to accommodate various manufacturers’ solutions. A set of materials used in the radiotherapy field is considered to allow the assessment of the stiffness and strength of the masks when submitted to typical loadings.


Computed tomography 3D laser scanning Geometric modeling Head immobilization devices Stiffness and strength analyses 3D printing 



The authors wish to acknowledge Fundação Champalimaud for the possibility of obtaining the CT images, which were essential to this study.


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Copyright information

© China Science Publishing & Media Ltd. (Science Press), Shanghai Institute of Applied Physics, the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chinese Nuclear Society and Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • M. A. R. Loja
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    Email author
  • D. S. Craveiro
    • 1
  • L. Vieira
    • 1
    • 4
    • 5
  • E. Sousa
    • 1
    • 4
  • J. A. Rodrigues
    • 1
  • R. J. F. Portal
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.CIMOSM, Centro de Investigação em Modelação e Optimização de Sistemas Multifuncionais, ISEL, IPLInstituto Superior de Engenharia de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  2. 2.LAETA, IDMEC, Instituto Superior TécnicoUniversidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Science and Technology, NOVA UNIDEMIUniversidade Nova de LisboaCaparicaPortugal
  4. 4.H&TRC – Health &Technology Research CenterESTeSL - Escola Superior de Tecnologia da Saúde de LisboaLisbonPortugal
  5. 5.Instituto de Biofísica e Engenharia BiomédicaFaculdade de Ciências da Universidade de LisboaLisbonPortugal

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