Advertisement

Efficacy of aroma compounds for postharvest management of mango anthracnose

  • Amarjeet Kumar
  • Vithal KudachikarEmail author
Original Article
  • 19 Downloads

Abstract

Anthracnose is a severe disease of mango caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides Penz. The antifungal effects of the aroma compounds (trans-cinnamaldehyde, citral, and phenylacetaldehyde) were tested against the pathogen. These compounds exhibited complete inhibition of visual spore germination and the mycelial growth under in vitro conditions. Complete inhibition of mycelial growth of C. gloeosporioides was observed by trans-cinnamaldehyde (TCA) at 500 mg L−1 followed by citral (CT) at 750 mg L−1 and phenylacetaldehyde (PAA) at 2000 mg L−1. The effect of aroma compounds on the morphology and membrane lesion of C. gloeosporioides mycelia was studied through scanning electron microscopy (SEM). SEM observations revealed withered hyphae. Further experiments confirmed that aroma compounds inhibited the ergosterol synthesis and also triggered the membrane-active mechanism. Results on testing the efficacy of the aroma compounds through the fungal pectinase inhibition study confirmed that these aroma compounds have potential to damage plasma membrane integrity and cause membrane lesion of C. gloeosporioides, thereby causing the delayed anthracnose incidence in treated mango fruits as compared to control fruits. The antifungal activity of these aroma compounds could be attributed to the disruption of membrane integrity and leakage of cellular components. Results of the in vivo study showed that postharvest treatment of these compounds revealed that both disease incidence and severity efficiently managed in a dosage-dependent manner. The aroma compounds TCA, CT, and PAA might be an excellent natural and biodegradable bio-fungicides for the control of anthracnose disease in mango after harvest.

Keywords

Anthracnose Aroma compounds Antifungal potential Fungal pectinase inhibition potential 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors are thankful to Director, CSIR-Central Food Technological Research Institute, Mysuru, for his keen interest and constant encouragement and all technical and non-technical staffs for their help to complete the research work, collecting data, and technical assistance. This research work was undertaken as part of the CSIR-Network project-Agropathy (BSC0105) funded by Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. The authors acknowledge the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, for funding this project.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

I, Dr. V. B. Kudachikar, the corresponding author of the manuscript, on behalf of all the co-authors at this moment undertake that there is no conflict of interest in the research paper for publication.

References

  1. Abbaszadeh S, Sharifzadeh A, Shokri H, Khosravi AR, Abbaszadeh A (2014) Antifungal efficacy of thymol, carvacrol, eugenol, and menthol as alternative agents to control the growth of food-relevant fungi. J Mycol Med 24:51–56.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mycmed.2014.01.063 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Abd-Alla MA, Haggag WM (2013) Use of some plant essential oils as postharvest botanical fungicides in the management of anthracnose disease of mango fruits (Mangifera indica L.) caused by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (Penz). Int J Agric For 3(1):1–6.  https://doi.org/10.5923/j.ijaf.20130301.01 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Anisa SK, Ashwini S, Girish K (2013) Isolation and screening of Aspergillus spp. for pectinolytic activity. Electron J Biol 9(2):37–41Google Scholar
  4. Asgar A, Paa KB, Ajit S, Yasmeen S, Samir D (2016) Post-harvest development of anthracnose in pepper (Capsicum spp.): etiology and management strategies. Crop Prot 90:132–141.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.07.026 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bomfim NDS, Nakassugi LP, Oliveira JFP, Kohiyama CY, Mossini SAG, Grespan R, Nerilo SB, Mallmann CA, Filho BAA, Miguel M Jr (2015) Antifungal activity and inhibition of fumonisin production by Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oil in Fusarium verticillioides (Sacc.) Nirenberg. Food Chem 166:330–336.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2014.06.019 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Catello P, Florinda F, Mario P, Filomena N, Massimo Z (2016) Control of Alternaria post-harvest infections on cherry tomato fruits by wild pepper phenolic-rich extracts. Crop Prot 84:81–87.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2016.02.015 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chang TC, Chang WL, Hsu JC, Shih Y, Chou ST (2013) Chemical composition and tyrosinase inhibitory activity of Cinnamomum cassia essential oil. Bot Stud 54(1):10.  https://doi.org/10.1186/1999-3110-54-10 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  8. Changliang J, Jian Z, Han X, Huang R, Cai D, Zhang C (2018) Essential oil of Syringa oblata Lindl. as a potential biocontrol agent against tobacco brown spot caused by Alternaria alternata. Crop Prot 104:41–46.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2017.10.002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Chung WH, Ishii H, Nishimura K, Fukaya M, Yano K, Kajitani Y (2006) Fungicide sensitivity and phylogenetic relationship of anthracnose fungi isolated from various fruit crops in Japan. Plant Dis 90:506–512.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PD-90-0506 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Dubey RK, Kumar R, Dubey NK (2007) Evaluation of Eupatorium cannabinum Linn. oil in the enhancement of shelf life of mango fruits from fungal rotting. World J Microbiol Biotechnol 23(4):467–473.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11274-006-9248-8 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Espinel-Ingroff A, Fothergill A, Peter J, Rinaldi MG, Walsh TJ (2002) Testing conditions for determination of minimum fungicidal concentrations of new and established antifungal agents for Aspergillus spp.: NCCLS collaborative study. J Clin Microbiol 40(9):3204–3208.  https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.40.9.3204-3208.2002 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Fries N (1973) Effects of volatile organic compounds on the growth and development of fungi. Trans Br Mycol Soc 60(1):1–21.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0007-1536(73)80055-5 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Galli JA, Silveira LCP, Michelotto MD, Martins ALM (2008) Powdery mildew (Oidium mangiferae Bert.) infection in mango varieties. Biosci J 24(2):43–46Google Scholar
  14. Hang Z, Jiani Y, Qian Y, Yanhua X, Wei C, Siwang W (2015) Cinnamaldehyde in a novel intravenous sub micrometer emulsion: pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, antitumor efficacy, and toxicity. J Agric Food Chem 63:6386–6392.  https://doi.org/10.1021/acs.jafc.5b01883 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Hernandez Delgado PM, Aranguren M, Reig C, Fernandez Galvan D, Mesejo C, Martinez Fuentes A, Agusti M (2011) Phonological growth stages of mango (Mangifera indica L.) according to the BBCH scale. Sci Hortic 130(3):536–540CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Hong JK, Yang HJ, Jung H, Yoon DJ, Sang MK, Jeun YC (2015) Application of aroma antifungal plant essential oils for controlling pepper fruit anthracnose by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides. Plant Pathol J 31(3):269–277.  https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.03.2015.0027 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  17. Jing R, Li H, Hu C, Jiang YP, Qin LP, Zheng CJ (2016) Phytochemical and pharmacological profiles of three Fagopyrum buckwheat. Int J Mol Sci 17(4):589.  https://doi.org/10.3390/ijms17040589 CrossRefPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  18. Kranz J (1988) Measuring plant disease. In: Kranz J, Rotem J (eds) Experimental techniques in plant disease epidemiology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 35–50.  https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-95534-1. ISBN 978-0-387-18128-8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Kumar A, Kudachikar VB (2017) Antifungal properties of essential oils against anthracnose disease: a critical appraisal. J Plant Dis Prot.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s41348-017-0128-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Kumar P, Kamle M, Gupta VK, Pandey BK, Misra AK, Modi DR (2013) Host-pathogen interaction study in malformed affected tissues of Mangifera indica L. Am J Agric Biol Sci 8(3):199–203.  https://doi.org/10.3844/ajabssp.2013.199.203 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ljiljana J, Vesna SJ, Ivan P, Violeta M, Milanka R (2014) In vitro screening of α-amylase inhibition by selected terpenes from essential oils. Trop J Pharm Res 13(9):1421–1428.  https://doi.org/10.4314/tjpr.v13i9.7 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Lupetti A, Danesi R, Campa M, Del Tacca M, Kelly S (2002) Molecular basis of resistance to azole antifungals. Trends Mol Med 8:76–81.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S1471-4914(02)02280-3 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Mohamed IA, Gomah EN, Abul Hamed HM (2013) Antifungal activity of prenylated flavonoids isolated from Tephrosia apollinea L. against four phytopathogenic fungi. Crop Prot 49:21–25.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2013.02.012 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Mozaina K, Tellez MR, Webber CL, Dayan FE, Schrader KK, Wedge DE (2001) Phytotoxic and fungi toxic activities of the essential oil of Kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L.) leaves and its composition. J Agric Food Chem 49:3768–3771.  https://doi.org/10.1021/jf0101455 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ojeda AM, Aguilera JAM, Monter AV, Diaz CN, Castro EH, Otero-Colina G, Morales JH (2012) Temporal analysis and fungicide management strategies to control mango anthracnose epidemics in Guerrero, Mexico. Trop Plant Pathol 37:375–385.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S1982-56762012000600001 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Olsen RV, Andersen HH, Møller HG, Eskelund PW, Arendt-Nielsen L (2014) Somatosensory and vasomotor manifestations of individual and combined stimulation of TRPM8 and TRPA1 using topical l-menthol and trans-cinnamaldehyde in healthy volunteers. Eur J Pain 18(9):1333–1342.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1532-2149.2014.494.x CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ploetz RC, Freeman S (2009) Foliar, floral and soil-borne diseases. In: Litz RE (ed) The mango, botany, production, and uses, 2nd edn. CABI Publishing, Wallingford, pp 231–302.  https://doi.org/10.1079/9781845934897.0231 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Raheel M, Anwar SA, Javed N, Ilyas MB, Iqbal M, Zia A (2008) Management of powdery mildew of mango by foliar spray fungicides. Pak J Phytopathol 21(1):173–174Google Scholar
  29. Sang MK, Shrestha A, Kim D-Y, Park K, Pak CH, Kim KD (2013) Biocontrol of Phytophthora blight and anthracnose in pepper by sequentially selected antagonistic rhizobacteria against Phytophthora capsici. Plant Pathol J 29:154–167.  https://doi.org/10.5423/PPJ.OA.07.2012.0104 CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Shukla PK, Adak T, Gundappa (2017) Anthracnose disease dynamics of mango orchards in relation to humid thermal index under subtropical climatic condition. J Agrometeorol 19(1):56–61Google Scholar
  31. Singh A, Kaur A, Dua A, Mahajan R (2015) An efficient and improved methodology for the screening of industrially valuable xylano-pectino-cellulolytic microbes. Enzym Res 2015:1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1155/2015/725281 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Soares MNC, da-Silva R, Gomes E (1999) Screening of bacterial strains for pectinolytic activity. Characterization of polygalacturonase produced by Bacillus sp. Rev Microbiol 30:299–303.  https://doi.org/10.1590/S0001-37141999000400002 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sukatta U, Haruthaithanasan V, Chantarapanont W, Dilokkunanant U, Suppakul P (2008) Antifungal activity of clove and cinnamon oil and their synergistic against postharvest decay fungi of grape in vitro. Kasetsart J (Nat Sci) 42:169–174Google Scholar
  34. Sulaiman AA-Y (2013) Antifungal activity of aromas from lemongrass (Cymbopogon citratus) and Peppermint (Mentha piperita) oils against some respiratory pathogenic species of Aspergillus. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 2(6):261–272Google Scholar
  35. Tian J, Ban XQ, Zeng H, He JS, Chen YX, Wang YW (2012) The mechanism of antifungal action of essential oil from dill (Anethum graveolens L.) on Aspergillus flavus. PLoS ONE 7(1):1–10.  https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0030147 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Tian J, Wang Y, Zeng H, Li Z, Zhang P, Tessema A, Peng X (2015) Efficacy and possible mechanisms of perillaldehyde in control of Aspergillus niger causing grape decay. Int J Food Microbiol 202C:27–34.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijfoodmicro.2015.02.022 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Tzortzakis NG (2007) Methyl jasmonate-induced suppression of anthracnose rot in tomato fruit. Crop Prot 26:1507–1513.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cropro.2006.12.014 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Wang SY, Chen PF, Chang ST (2005) Antifungal activities of essential oils and their constituent from indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum) leaves against wood decay fungi. Bioresour Technol 96(7):813–818.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biortech.2004.07.010 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Weisheimer V, Miron D, Silva CB, Guterres SS, Schapoval EES (2010) Microparticles containing lemongrass aroma oil: preparation, characterization and thermal stability. Pharmazie 65:885–890.  https://doi.org/10.1691/ph.2010.0139 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Xing Y, Xu Q, Li X, Che Z, Yun J (2011) Antifungal activity of clove oil against Rhizopus nigricans, Aspergillus flavaus and Penicillium citrinum in in-vitro and in wound fruits test. J Food Saf 32(1):84–93.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1745-4565.2011.00347.x CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Fruit and Vegetable Technology DepartmentCSIR-Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia
  2. 2.Academy of Scientific and Innovative ResearchCSIR-Central Food Technological Research InstituteMysoreIndia

Personalised recommendations