Advertisement

Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 126, Issue 6, pp 585–591 | Cite as

Characterization and pathogenicity of Fusarium solani causing foot rot on hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Southern Italy

  • Roberto SorrentinoEmail author
  • Raffaella Pergamo
  • Valerio Battaglia
  • Francesco Raimo
  • Michele Cermola
  • Ernesto Lahoz
Short Communication

Abstract

Symptoms of foot rot were observed on hemp (Cannabis sativa) plants in Campania region (Southern Italy) in 2018. The symptoms consisted of brownish areas along the main stem followed by wilting and dropping of leaves. The bark was easily removed in correspondence of the lesions since the inner part of the cortex was affected too. The causal agent was isolated on potato dextrose agar and stored at the Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial Crops of Caserta. On carnation leaf agar, the fungus produced long monophialidic conidiogenous cells and both micro- and macroconidia. The first were oval, ellipsoid and fusiform prevalently 0- and 1-septate with length 9.84–12.68 μm and width 2.61–4.15 μm, while falciform macroconidia were prevalently 3- and 4-septate with length and width 23.87–29.23 × 3.22–4.98, respectively. Chlamydospores were observed intercalated in the hyphae, globose to oval in shape with smooth or rough wall, 5–15 μm in diameter. Morphologically, the fungus was identified as Fusarium solani, which was also supported by the BLASTn and the phylogenetic analysis of the sequences of the internal transcribed spacer and elongation factor 1-α genes. Koch’s postulates confirmed F. solani as the etiological agent of the observed disease. Cluster analysis applied to the two genes demonstrated that our isolates belong to the clade 3 of the F. solani species complex.

Keywords

Hemp Fusarium solani Root rot Diagnosis Molecular characterization ITS-EF1α genes 

Notes

Acknowledgements

We are grateful to the Dr. Gian Maria Baldi for the field pictures provided. RP and FR were partially supported by PROHEMPIL (Reg. Campania Law 5/2016). RS was supported by the project FAMEGA. RP was supported by the Regione Campania (PSR PROHEMPIL B21 I1800029002).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Human participants and/or animals

The authors declare that the research does not involve humans or animals.

Informed consent

The authors certify that the work carried out in this research followed the principles of ethical and professional conduct.

Supplementary material

41348_2019_265_MOESM1_ESM.rar (5 mb)
Supplementary material 1 (RAR 5135 kb)
41348_2019_265_MOESM2_ESM.rar (12.2 mb)
Supplementary material 2 (RAR 12444 kb)

References

  1. Altschul S, Gish W, Miller W, Myers EW, Lipman DJ (1990) Basic local alignment search tool. J Mol Biol 215:403–410.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0022-2836(05)80360-2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Beckerman J, Nisonson H, Albright N, Creswell T (2017) First report of Pythium aphanidermatum crown and root rot of industrial hemp in the United States. Plant Dis 101(6):1038.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-09-16-1249-PDN CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Booth C (1971) The genus Fusarium (Commonwealth Agricultural Bureaux [for the] Commonwealth Mycological Institute)Google Scholar
  4. Chehri Khosrow, Salleh Baharuddin, Zakaria Latiffah (2015) Morphological and phylogenetic analysis of Fusarium solani species complex in Malaysia. Microb Ecol 69:457–471.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s00248-014-0494-2 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. D’Amico M, Frisullo S, Cirulli M (2008) Endophytic fungi occurring in fennel, lettuce, chicory, and celery—commercial crops in southern Italy. Mycol Res 112:100–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Desanlis F, Cerruti N, Warner P (2013) Hemp agronomics and cultivation. In: Bouloc P (ed) Hemp industrial production and uses. CABI, Wollingford, pp 98–124CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Dewey LH (1914) “Hemp.” in U.S.D.A. Yearbook 1913. United States Department of Agriculture, Washington, DC, pp 283–347Google Scholar
  8. Elmer WH (2001) Seeds as vehicles for pathogen importation. Biol Invasions 3:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. He D, Hao J, Zhang B, Yang Y, Song W, Zhang Y, Yokoyama K, Wang L (2011) Pathogenic spectrum of fungal keratitis and specific identification of Fusarium solani. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 52(5):2804–2808.  https://doi.org/10.1167/iovs.10-5977 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Jiang H-E, Li X, Zhao Y-X, Ferguson DK, Hueber F, Bera S, Wang Y-F, Zhao L-C, Liu C-J, Li C-S (2006) A new insight into Cannabis sativa (Cannabaceae) utilization from 2500-year-old Yanghai Tombs, Xinjiang, China. J Ethnopharmacol 108:414–422CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Kolattukudy PE, Gamble DL (1995) Nectria haematococca: pathogenesis and host specificity in plant diseases. In: Kohmoto K, Singh US, Singh RP (eds) Pathogenesis and host specificity in plant pathogenic fungi and nematodes. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 83–102Google Scholar
  12. Lahoz E, Giordano I, Pentangelo A (1992) Characterization of Fusarium solani in lentil (Lens esculenta Moench.) crops. In: Proceedings of 1st European conference on grain legumes, 1–3 June 1992, Angers, France, pp 361–362Google Scholar
  13. Lahoz E, Nicoletti R, Contillo R, Raimo F (1996) Fusarium solani associated with crown and root rot of tobacco. Petria 6:189–193Google Scholar
  14. McCain AH, Noviello C (1985) Biological control of Cannabis sativa. In: Proceedings, 6th international symposium on biological control of weeds, pp 635–642Google Scholar
  15. McPartland JM (1996) A review of Cannabis diseases. J Int Hemp Assoc 3(1):19–23Google Scholar
  16. McPartland J, Clarke R, Watson D (2000) Hemp diseases and pests: management and biological control. CABI, OxfordshireCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Morra L, Bilotto M (2006) Evaluation of new rootstocks for resistance to soil-borne pathogens and productive behaviour of pepper (Capsicum annuum L.). J Hortic Sci Biotechnol 81:518–524.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14620316.2006.11512097 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Morra L, Carrieri R, Fornasier F, Mormile P, Rippa M, Baiano S, Cermola M, Piccirillo G, Lahoz E (2018) Solarization working like a “solar hot panel” after compost addition sanitizes soil in thirty days and preserves soil fertility. Appl Soil Ecol 126:65–74CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Noviello C, Snyder WC (1962) Fusarium wilt of hemp. Phytopathology 52:1315–1317Google Scholar
  20. O’Donnell K (2000) Molecular phylogeny of the Nectria haematococca-Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia 92(5):919–938.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3761588 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. O’Donnell K, Kistler HC, Cigelnik E, Ploetz RC (1998) Multiple evolutionary origins of the fungus causing Panama disease of banana: concordant evidence from nuclear and mitochondrial gene genealogies. PNAS 95:2044–2049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pane A, Cosentino SL, Copani V, Cacciola SO (2007) First report of southern blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii on hemp (Cannabis sativa) in Sicily and Southern Italy. Plant Dis 91(5):636.  https://doi.org/10.1094/PDIS-91-5-0636A CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Pareek V, Varma R (2015) Fusarium solani a dominant seed borne pathogen in seeds of cluster bean grown in Rajasthan. Biosci Biotechnol Res Commun 8(1):29–34Google Scholar
  24. Punja ZK, Rodriguez G (2018) Fusarium and Pythium species infecting roots of hydroponically grown marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) plants. Can J Plant Pathol 40(4):498–513.  https://doi.org/10.1080/07060661.2018.1535466 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Punja ZK, Scott C, Chen S (2018) Root and crown rot pathogens causing wilt symptoms on field-grown marijuana (Cannabis sativa L.) plants. Can J Plant Pathol 40:528–541CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schroers H-J, Samuels GJ, Zhang N, Short DPG, Juba J, Geiser DM (2016) Epitypification of Fusisporium (Fusarium) solani and its assignment to a common phylogenetic species in the Fusarium solani species complex. Mycologia 108:806–819CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Spadaro C (2018) Canapa revolution. Tutto quello che c’è da sapere sulla cannabis. Altreconomia, MilanGoogle Scholar
  28. Struik PC, Amaducci S, Bullard MJ, Stutterheim NC, Venturi G, Cromack HTH (2000) Agronomy of fibre hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) in Europe. Ind Crops Prod 11:107–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Tamura K, Stecher G, Peterson D, Filipski A, Kumar S (2013) MEGA6: molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 6.0. Mol Biol Evol 30:2725–2729CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Vannacci G, Gambogi P (1980) Fusarium solani f. sp. cucurbitae razza 1 su semi di Cucurbita pepo L.: reperimento del patogeno e influenza di condizioni colturali sull’andamento della malattia. Phytopathol Mediterr 19:103–114Google Scholar
  31. White TJ, Bruns T, Lee S, Taylor JW (1990) Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics. In: Innis MA, Gelfand DH, Sninsky HH, White TJ (eds) PCR protocols: a guide to methods and applications. Academic, New York, pp 315–322Google Scholar
  32. Zhang N, O’Donnell K, Sutton DA, Nalim FA, Summerbell RC, Padhye AA, Geiser DM (2006) Members of the Fusarium solani species complex that cause infections in both humans and plants are common in the environment. J Clin Microbiol 44:2186–2190CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Council for Agriculture Research and Economics, Research Centre for Cereal and Industrial CropsCasertaItaly

Personalised recommendations