Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection

, Volume 126, Issue 5, pp 409–420 | Cite as

Identification of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with cut flowers

  • Elvan Sert Çelik
  • Tevfik Özalp
  • İbrahim Mıstanoğlu
  • Zübeyir DevranEmail author
Original Article


Carnation, gerbera and lisianthus are an important part of the cut flower market worldwide, but plant-parasitic nematodes (PPN) affect their production and quality. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of PPNs is required for effective pest management programmes and crop rotation. In this study, a survey was carried out in the Antalya province of Turkey, an area where carnation, gerbera, lisianthus and chrysanthemum are commercially grown. A total of 79 soil samples were collected from greenhouses in the area, and 12 species-specific primers for identification of Meloidogyne, Pratylenchus and Rotylenchulus species were used for molecular detection. Pratylenchus thornei, M. incognita, P. neglectus, M. javanica, M. arenaria and M. hapla were detected in 98.73%, 88.60%, 65.82%, 34.17%, 22.78% and 5.06% of samples, respectively. Results showed combination of different PPN species in the soil of greenhouses where cut flowers were grown. These findings may be used to improve management practices, reducing losses in cut flower production.


Cut flowers Identification Markers PCR Plant-parasitic nematodes 


Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


  1. Adam MAM, Phillips MS, Blok VC (2007) Molecular diagnostic key for identification of single juveniles of seven common and economically important species of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne spp.). Plant Pathol 56:190–197CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Agudelo P, Robbins RT, Stewart JMcD, Szalanski AL (2005) Intraspecific Variability of Rotylenchulus reniformis from Cotton-growing Regions in the United States. J Nematol 37:105–114PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  3. Agudelo PA, Lewis SA, Abril MA (2006) First report of root-knot nematode Meloidogyne javanica on chrysanthemum in Colombia. Plant Dis 90:828CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Al-Banna L, Ploeg AT, Williamson WM, Kaloshian I (2004) Discrimination of six Pratylenchus species using PCR and species specific primers. J Nematol 36:142–146PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  5. Bala G, Hosein F (1996) Plant parasitic nematodes associated with anthuriums and other tropical ornamentals. Nematropica 26:9–14Google Scholar
  6. Cabos RYM, Wang K-H, Sipes BS, Heller WP, Matsumoto TK (2013) Detection of plant-parasitic nematode DNA in the gut of predatory and omnivorous nematodes. Nematropica 43:44–48Google Scholar
  7. Deimi AM, Chitambar JJ, Maafi ZT (2008) Nematodes associated with flowering ornamental plants in Mahallat, Iran. Nematol Medit 36:115–123Google Scholar
  8. Devran Z, Söğüt MA (2009) Distribution and identification of Root-knot nematodes from Turkey. J Nematol 41:128–133PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Devran Z, Polat İ, Mıstanoğlu İ, Baysal Ö (2018) A novel multiplex PCR tool for simultaneous detection of three root-knot nematodes. Australas Plant Pathol 47:1–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Gleason CA, Liu QL, Williamson VM (2008) Silencing a candidate nematode effector gene corresponding to the tomato resistance gene Mi-1 leads to acquisition of virulence. Mol Plant Mıcrobe Interact 21:576–585CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Handoo ZA, Golden AM (1989) A key and diagnostic compendium to the species of the genus Pratylenchus Filipjev 1936 (Lesion Nematodes). J Nematol 21:202–218PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  12. Harris TS, Sandal LJ, Powers TO (1990) Identification of single Meloidogyne juveniles by polymerase chain reaction amplification of mitochondrial DNA. J Nematol 22:518–524PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  13. Hooper DJ (1986) Extraction of free-living stages from soil. In: Southey JF (ed) Laboratory methods for work with plant and soil nematodes. Her Majesty’s Stationery Office, London, pp 5–30Google Scholar
  14. Hye-Rim H, Jae Kook L, Dong Ro D, Man Jong H, Byeong Yong P (2006) Occurrence of plant parasitic nematodes in chrysanthemum and ITS and D3-28S rDNA characterization of Pratylenchus spp. Korean J Appl Entomol 45:293–299Google Scholar
  15. Jepson SB (1987) Identification of Root-knot nematodes (Meloidogyne species), 1st edn. CAB Int, WallingfordGoogle Scholar
  16. Kepenekci İ, Öztürk G (2002) Ülkemizde süs bitkilerinde sorun olan bitki paraziti nematodlar. In: II. Ulusal Süs Bitkileri Kongresi, Antalya, Türkiye, pp 208–215Google Scholar
  17. Lamberti F, Tacconi R, Marinari A, D’Errico FP, Basile M (1987) Major plant parasitic nematodes associated with flower crops in Italy and their control. Difesa delle Piante 10:77–84Google Scholar
  18. Langat JK, Kimenju JW, Mutua GK, Muiru WM, Otieno W (2008) Response of free-living nematodes to treatments targeting plant parasitic nematodes in carnation. Asia J Plant Sci 7:467–472CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Manju P, Subramanian S (2015) Survey of plant parasitic nematodes associated with gerbera in Tamil Nadu. Int J Scı Nat 6:586–589Google Scholar
  20. Marroquin A, Arbelaez G (1992) Chemical control of cyst nematode, Heterodera trifolii on miniature carnation. In: ISHS Acta Horticulturae 307: IV international symposium on carnation culture, pp 131–136Google Scholar
  21. Nagesh M, Parvatha Reddy P (1996) Management of Meloidogyne incognita on carnation and gerbera in commercial polyhouses. In: Crop productivity and sustainability—shaping the future, 2nd International crop science congress. NAAS, New Delhi, India, p 349Google Scholar
  22. Nagesh M, Parvatha Reddy P (2000) Crop loss in carnation and gerbera due to the root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid and White) Chitwood. Pest Manag Hortic Ecosyst 6:158–159Google Scholar
  23. Neves CG, Belle C, Nascimento MB, Grolli PR, Gomes CB, Barros DR (2017) First Report of Meloidogyne arenaria on Lisianthus (Eustoma grandiflorum) in Brazil. Plant Dis 101:511CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Nirmal Johnson SB (2000) Studies on nematode pests of cutflowers with special reference to carnation, gerbera, gladiolus and Asiatic lily. Dissertation, Tamil Nadu Agricultural UniversityGoogle Scholar
  25. Phyllis J (1997) Outlook on plant nematodes and their control in Cyprus. Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  26. Powers TO, Todd TC, Burnell AM, Murray PCB, Fleming CC, Szalanski AL, Adams BA, Harris TS (1997) The internal transcribed space region as a taxonomic marker for nematodes. J Nematol 29:441–450PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  27. Sasser JN, Freckman DW (1987) A world prospective in nematology: the role of society. In: Veech JA, Dickson DW (eds) Vistas on nematology. Society of Nematologists Inc., Hyattsville, pp 7–14Google Scholar
  28. Sharma S, Sharma N (2008) Carnation diseases and their management—a review. Agrıc Rev 29:11–20Google Scholar
  29. Söğüt MA, Devran Z (2011) Distribution and molecular identification of root lesion nematodes in temperate fruit orchards of Turkey. Nematropıca 41:91–99Google Scholar
  30. Taşçıoğlu Y, Sayın C (2005) Cut flower production and export structure in Turkey. Medit Agric Sci 18:343–354Google Scholar
  31. Trademap (2016) Trade Statistics For International Business Development Accessed 19 Dec 2018
  32. Troccoli A, De Luca F, Hando ZA, Di Vito M (2008) Morphological and molecular characterization of Pratylenchus lentis n. sp. (Nematoda: Pratylenchidae) from Sicily. J Nematol 40:190–196PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Turkish Statistical Institute (2018) Crop Production Statistics, Accessed 26 April 2018
  34. Waeyenberge L, Ryss A, Moens M, Pinochet J, Vrain T (2000) Molecular characterization of 18 Pratylenchus species using rDNA restriction fragment length polymorphism. Nematology 2:135–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Wishart J, Phillips MS, Blok VC (2002) Ribosomal Intergenic Spacer: a Polymerase chain reaction diagnostic for Meloidogyne chitwoodi, M. fallax, and M. hapla. Nematology 92:884–892Google Scholar
  36. Yamamoto E, Toida Y (1995a) Fauna of plant parasitic nematodes in temperate region of Japan. Jpn Int Res Center Agric Sci J 2:43–48Google Scholar
  37. Yamamoto E, Toida Y (1995b) Fauna of plant parasitic nematodes in temperate region of Japan-2. Survey in China Perfecture. Jpn Int Res Center Agric Sci J 2:37–42Google Scholar
  38. Yan G, Smiley RW, Okubara PA, Skantar A, Easley SA, Sheedy JG, Thompson AL (2008) Detection and discrimination of Pratylenchus neglectus and P. thornei in DNA extracts from soil. Plant Dis 92:1480–1487CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Zijlstra C, Donkers-Venne DTHM, Fargette M (2000) Identification of Meloidogyne incognita, M. javanica and M. arenaria using sequence characterized amplified region (SCAR) based PCR assays. Nematology 2:847–853CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Deutsche Phytomedizinische Gesellschaft 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Elvan Sert Çelik
    • 1
  • Tevfik Özalp
    • 1
  • İbrahim Mıstanoğlu
    • 1
  • Zübeyir Devran
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of AgricultureUniversity of AkdenizAntalyaTurkey

Personalised recommendations