Social Media/Networking and Psychiatric Education: Competencies, Teaching Methods, and Implications
- 12 Downloads
Patient-centered care features quality and timely care in a variety of settings. Technology facilitates care and its use is common in the Digital Native (Z), Millenial (Y), and X Generations, particularly for adolescents and young adults. Social media/networking options like TwitterR and FacebookR are popular, as are text, e-mail, and mobile health apps. This paper proposes social media competencies and teaching methods based on the fields of healthcare, service delivery, education/androgogy, and evaluation. A brief review of the literature based on PubMed/Medline, Cochrane, Embase, and PsycINFO was performed using primary terms of social media, networking, technology, competency(ies), and other terminology. The social media/networking competencies are framed in contemporary competency-based frameworks. Teaching methods are aligned with competency outcomes, learning context, and program evaluation options. Case examples demonstrate ways to train residents/fellows/other mental health trainees in curricular settings. Novice/advanced beginner and competent/proficient competencies for social media/networking fit within a larger e-behavioral health curriculum, along with telepsychiatric competencies. Teaching methods for social media/networking competencies require additional planning, use of cases, and other in-time clinical activities for learners and teachers. Institutions must plan for clinical and educational elements, in order to support training, shift attitudes, and promote faculty and staff development. These competencies, their implementation, and impact need more research and institutions need an integrated approach to social media/networking, telepsychiatric, and other technology developments for this new era of care.
KeywordsCompetency Social media Education Telemedicine Telebehavioral health
The authors would like to thank the American Association of Department of Psychiatry Training Directors andAcademy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry.
- Accreditation Council on Graduate Medical Education. (2013). Common Program Requirements. Retrieved from https://www.acgme.org/acgmeweb/Portals/0/PFAssets/ProgramRequirements/CPRs2013.pdf. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Medical Association (2011) Opinion 9.124 - Professionalism in the Use of Social Media. AMA Code of Medical Ethics. Available at: http://www.ama-assn.org/ama/pub/physician-resources/medicalethics/code-medical-ethics/opinion9124.page
- American Psychiatric Association Council on Medical Education and Lifelong Learning. (2014). Training Psychiatrists for Integrated Behavioral Health Care (Official Actions). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric Association. Retrieved from http://www.psychiatry.org/File%20Library/Advocacy%20and%20Newsroom/Press%20Releases/2015%20Releases/CMELL_ICReport_Public_03022015.pdf. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Psychiatric Association Toolkit for Telepsychiatry. (2017). Retrieved from https://psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/telepsychiatry. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Psychiatric Association Policy on Telepsychiatry. (2016). Retrieved from https://psychiatry.org/psychiatrists/practice/telepsychiatry. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Medical Association Telemedicine Guideline. (2014). Retrieved from https://wire.ama-assn.org/ama-news/telemedicine-prompts-new-ethical-ground-rules-physicians and https://integrationacademy.ahrq.gov/resources/new-and-notables/ama-telemedicine-policy. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Telemedicine Association. (2009). Practice Guidelines for Videoconferencing-based Telemental Health. Retrieved from http://www.americantelemed.org/docs/default-source/standards/practice-guidelines-for-videoconferencing-based-telemental-health.pdf?sfvrsn=6. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- American Telemedicine Association. (2017). Practice Guidelines For Telemental Health With Children and Adolescents. Retrieved from: https://higherlogicdownload.s3.amazonaws.com/AMERICANTELEMED/618da447-dee1-4ee1-b941-c5bf3db5669a/UploadedImages/Practice%20Guideline%20Covers/NEW_ATA%20Children%20&%20Adolescents%20Guidelines.pdf. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- Barreto, J. E., & Whitehair, C. L. (2017). Social media and web presence for patients and professionals: evolving trends and implications for practice. Pulmonary Medicine and Rehabilitation, 9(5S), S98–S105.Google Scholar
- British Medical Association. (2013). Using social media: practical and ethical guidance for doctors and medical students. Retrieved from http://www.medschools.ac.uk/SiteCollectionDocuments/social_media_guidance_may2011.pdf. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- Canadian Medical Association. (2015). Social media and Canadian physicians – issues and rules of engagement. Retrieved from https://www.cma.ca/socialmedia. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- Cole, J., Suman, M., Schramm, P., Zhou, L., & Reyes-Sepulveda, E. (2013). The world Internet project: International report (5th ed.). Retrieved from http://worldinternetproject.com/_files/_//307_2013worldinternetreport.pdf. Accessed: January 17, 2018.
- Dreyfus, S. E., & Dreyfus, S. L. (1980). A five-stage model of the mental activities involved in directed skill acquisition. Retrieved from http://www.dtic.mil/dtic/tr/fulltext/u2/a084551.pdf. Accessed January 17, 2018.
- Ekman, I., Swedberg, K., Taft, C., Lindseth, A., Norberg, A., Brink, E., … & Sunnerhagen K. S. (2011). Person-centered care—ready for prime time. European Journal of Cardiovascular Nursing, 10(4), 248–251.Google Scholar
- Farnan, J. M., Snyder Sulmasy, L., Worster, B. K., Chaudhry, H. G., Rhyne, J. A., … & American College of Physicians Council of Associates; Federation of State Medical Boards Special Committee on Ethics and Professionalism. (2013). Online medical professionalism: Patient and public relationships: policy statement from the American College of Physicians and the Federation of State Medical Boards. Annals of Internal Medicine, 158(8), 620–627.Google Scholar
- Flickinger, T. E., O'Hagan, T., & Chisolm, M. S. (2015). Developing a curriculum to promote professionalism/n for medical students using social media: pilot of a workshop and blog-based intervention. Journal of Medical Informatics Research Medical Education, 1(2), e17.Google Scholar
- Frydman, G.J. (2009). Patient-driven research: rich opportunities and real risks. Journal of Participatory Medicine, 1(1), e12. Retrieved from http://ojs.jopm.org/index.php/jpm/article/view/28/18. Accessed January 17, 2018.
- Harvard Business Review. (2013). Using Technology and Data for Social Impact. Retrieved from https://hbr.org/2013/03/using-technology-and-data-for
- Hilty, D. M., Belitsky, R., Cohen, M. B., Cabaniss, D. L., Dickstein, L. J., Bernstein, C. A., & Silberman, E. K. (2015a). Impact of the information age residency training: the impact of the generation gap. Academic Psychiatry, 39(1), 104–107. https://doi.org/10.1007/s40596-014-0196-6 CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hilty, D. M., Chan, S., Torous, J., Mahautmr, J., & Mucic, D. M. (2015b). New frontiers in healthcare and technology: internet- and web-based mental options emerge to complement in-person and telepsychiatric care options. Journal of Health and Medical Informatics, 6(4), 1–14.Google Scholar
- Hilty, D. M., Crawford, A., Teshima, J., Chan, S., Sunderji, N., Yellowlees, P. M., Kramer, G., O’Neill, P., Fore, C., Luo, J. S., & Li, S. T. (2015c). A framework for telepsychiatric training and e-health: competency-based education, evaluation and implications. International Review of Psychiatry, 27(6), 569–592.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Hilty D. M., Hwang T., & Turvey C. (2017a). Staying abreast of information in the information age: Digital continuing education and levering technology to stay current for clinical psychiatric practice. Current Psychiatry Reports, In Press.Google Scholar
- Hilty, D. M., Maheu, M., Drude, K., Hertlein, K., Wall, K., Long, R., & Luoma, T. (2017b). Telebehavioral health, telemental health, e-therapy and e-health competencies: The need for an interdisciplinary framework. Journal of Technology in Behavioral Science, In Press.Google Scholar
- Hilty, D. M., Nesbitt, T. S., Marks, S. L., & Callahan, E. J. (2002). How telepsychiatry affects the doctor-patient relationship: communication, satisfaction, and additional clinically relevant issues. Primary Psychiatry, 9(9), 29–34.Google Scholar
- Hilty, D. M., Snowdy, C. E., Shoemaker, E. Z., Gutierrez, Y. S. M., & Carli, V. (2015d). Social media and clinical practice: why it is popular, tips/guidelines on how to work with patients, and dealing with pathological internet use. Medical Research Archives, 3(7).Google Scholar
- Hu, C., Kung, S., Rummans, T. A., Clark, M. M., & Lapid, M. (2015). Reducing caregiver stress with internet-based interventions: a systematic review of open-label and randomized controlled trials. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association, 2(e1), e194–e209.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2000). To err is human: Building a safer health system. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Institute of Medicine. (2001). Crossing the quality chasm: a new health system for the 21 st century. Washington, DC: National Academic Press.Google Scholar
- Internet World Stats.(2011a). Internet users in the world-Distribution by world regions. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/stats.htm. Accessed January 17, 2018..
- Internet World Stats (2011b). United States of America: Internet usage and broadband usage report. Retrieved from http://www.internetworldstats.com/am/us.htm. Accessed January 17, 2018.
- Kotter, J. (1996). Leading change. Boston, MA: Harvard Business School Press.Google Scholar
- Markham, J. M., Gentile, D., & Graham, D. L. (2017). Social media for networking, professional development, and patient engagement. American Society of Clinical Oncology, 37, 782–787.Google Scholar
- Miles, A., & Mezzich, J. (2011). The care of the patient and the soul of the clinic: Person-centered medicine as an emergent model of modern clinical practice. The International Journal of Person Centered Medicine, 1(2), 207–222.Google Scholar
- National Center for Telehealth and Technology. (2013). PTSD Coach (Internet). PTSD Coach |t2health. Retrieved from http://www.t2.health.mil/apps/ptsd-coach.
- Pew Research Center, 2017. Mobile Fact Sheet. Retrieved from http://www.pewinternet.org/fact-sheet/mobile/. Accessed January 17, 2018.
- Pillow, M. T., Hopson, L., Bond, M., Cabrera, D., Patterson, L., Pearson, D., … et al., & Council of Residency Directors Social Media Task Force. (2014). Social media guidelines and best practices: Recommendations from the council of residency directors social media task force. Western Journal of Emergency Medicine, 15(1), 26.Google Scholar
- Rogers, E. M. (1962). Diffusion of innovations (Fourth ed.). Free Press: New York.Google Scholar
- Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons, CanMEDS Framework, 2005. Retrieved from http://www.royalcollege.ca/portal/page/portal/rc/canmeds/framework. Accessed January 17, 2018.
- Rutter, D. R. (1984). Looking and seeing: The role of visual communication in social interaction. Chichester; New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Srinivasan, M., Li, S. T., Meyers, F. J., Pratt, D. D., Collins, J. B., Braddock, C., & Hilty, D. M. (2011). Teaching as a competency for medical educators: competencies for medical educators. Academic Medicine, 86(10), 1211–1220. https://doi.org/10.1097/ACM.0b013e31822c5b9a CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Sundar, S., Oeldorf-Hirsch, A., Nussbaum, J., & Behr. R. (2011). Retirees on Facebook: Can online social networking enhance their health and wellness? In Proceedings of the 2011 Annual Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems – CHI EA ‘11, 2287–92. New York: ACM Press. doi: https://doi.org/10.1145/1979742.1979931.
- Torous J., Chan S., Boland R., Luo J., & Hilty D. M. (2017). Clinical informatics in psychiatric training. Academic Psychiatry, In Press.Google Scholar
- Yellowlees, P. M., & Nafiz, N. (2010). The psychiatrist-patient relationship of the future: anytime, anywhere? Review of Psychiatry, 18(2), 96–102.Google Scholar
- Yellowlees, P. M., Odor, A., Iosif, A., Parish, M. B., Nafiz, N., Patrice, K., … & Hilty, D. (2013). Transcultural psychiatry made simple: Asynchronous telepsychiatry as an approach to providing culturally relevant care. Telemedicine Journal and E-Health, 19(4), 1–6. doi: https://doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2012.0077.
- Välimäki, M., Athanasopoulou, C., Lahti, M., & Adams, & C.E. (2016). Effectiveness of social media interventions for people with schizophrenia: Aasystematic review and meta-analysis. Journal of Medical Internet Research, 18(4), e92. https://doi.org/10.2196/jmir.5385