Spatio-temporal trend and change point detection of winter temperature of North Bengal, India

  • Jayanta DasEmail author
  • Tapash Mandal
  • Piu Saha


The trend of temperature and homogeneity are the most significant issue for climate change allied research. This research aims to identify the long-term trend and change point detection of winter maximum (tmax), minimum (tmin) and average (tmean) temperature of six meteorological stations of North Bengal, India using 102 years’ time series data (1915–2016). To detect the monotonic trend and the rate of change, non-parametric Mann–Kendall (MK) test and Sen’s slope estimator were used. Homogeneity of winter temperature was studied using Buishand’s range test (B test) and Pettit’s test (P test). From the results, it was observed that most of the stations were showed significant (P < 0.05) warming trend in winter season. The rate of increasing was highest at station English Bazar in the month of December. On the other hand, significant changed of winter tmax and tmean occurred in around 1959 and 1952 respectively, while for tmin it was quite late, occurred in the year 1988. The populations of North Bengal who are dependent on temperature-related primary economic activities are getting benefitted from this study. In addition, these analyses will be helpful for policymakers and scientist to focus on micro-level planning and sustainable Rabi crops management in this region.


Mann–Kendall test Sen’s slope estimator Homogeneity test Winter warming 



The authors are grateful to the India Water Portal for providing free download of various dataset used in the analysis. Also, the authors would like to thank anonymous reviewers and editor for their helpful comments on the previous version of the manuscript.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical approval

This paper does not contain any studies with human participants performed by any of the authors. This paper does not contain any studies with animals performed by any of the authors.


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© Korean Spatial Information Society 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Geography and Applied GeographyUniversity of North BengalDarjeelingIndia
  2. 2.Department of GeographyChhatrapati Sahuji Maharaj UniversityKanpurIndia

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