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, Volume 9, Issue 2, pp 10–17 | Cite as

Steer-by-wire System for Electric Three-wheel Counterbalanced Forklift Truck

  • Maurizio Iotti
  • Michael Hammer
Cover Story

Due to the limited energy accumulator, i.e. the battery, electric forklift trucks need system components of the highest efficiency. The hydrostatic steering system used so far mainly in counterbalanced forklift trucks relies on the cost-optimised multiple uses of hydraulic components without considering the efficiency. The electromechanical steering system developed by ZF and Zapi features not only energetic advantages but also convincing ergonomics with a high degree of functional safety.


The electromechanical steering EPS3 of Zapi and ZF was developed to replace existing hydrostatic steering in front-wheel drive three-wheel counterbalance forklift trucks, Figure 1. The e-steering is based on a steer-by-wire control. This basic kind of control has been used on aircrafts since the seventies (known as fly-by-wire) and it is more and more adopted in automotive engineering for special functions like stability control (ESP) or cruise control. Even if time is not yet ripe for...


Mast Steering System Steer Wheel Angle Pump Motor Directional Control Valve 
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A special thank for the active contribute offered to collect information and data argued in the article to Claudio Del Monte and Vincenzo Renzo Rucci at Zapi S.p.a. and Brigitte Bayer at the ZF Friedrichshafen AG.


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Copyright information

© Sringer Fachmedien Wiesbaden 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maurizio Iotti
    • 1
  • Michael Hammer
    • 2
  1. 1.Zapi S.p.a.PoviglioItalia
  2. 2.ZF Friedrichshafen AGPassauGermany

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