The Effects of a Pedal-Less Bicycle Intervention on Stability Scores Among Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

  • Andrew ShimEmail author
  • David Newman
  • Justin Haegele
  • Kim Varnado



The purpose of this preliminary investigation was to determine if a program using pedal-less bicycles could improve stability scores among children with ASD.


A sample of eight children with ASD (average age, 7 ± 1.15) were recruited. The investigators tested each participant on a posturography plate for five consecutive weeks. The group used pedal-less bicycles, three times per week for five consecutive weeks. A MANOVA determined if center of pressure (CoP) or limit of stability (LoS) scores improved within the group.


LoS anterior, LoS posterior, right sagittal, and left sagittal indicated statistically significant improvements over time; the greatest improvement was seen in left sagittal assessments which improved from an average of 1.75 during baseline to an average of 3.03 at week 5.


There was evidence of a significant association between pedal-less bicycles and mean LoS scores among children with ASD. This investigation determined the use of pedal-less bicycles can improve stability scores among children with ASD within a 5-week session, if performed at least three times per week.


Autism spectrum disorder Balance Center of pressure Limit of stability Children 



The author would like to extend sincere gratitude to Dr. Sean Peterson and Ms. Jan Turbes with their assistance with collecting ADOS scores from the children. Supplementary materials such as ramps, safety helmets, and pedal-less bicycles were provided by can Strider Bikes LLC at

Authors’ Contributions

AS was responsible for developing the study, collecting and analyzing the data, and writing the manuscript. DN and JH collaborated in analyzing the data and writing/editing the manuscript. KV assisted in writing and editing the manuscript.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

Ethical Approval

The study was approved by the Institutional Review Board at Briar Cliff University in Sioux City IA. All procedures performed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Kinesiology & Exercise ScienceCollege of Saint MaryOmahaUSA
  2. 2.College of NursingFlorida Atlantic UniversityBoca RatonUSA
  3. 3.Department of Human Movement Sciences, 2009 Student Recreation CenterOld Dominion UniversityNorfolkUSA
  4. 4.Department of Physical TherapyCollege of Saint MaryOmahaUSA

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