Advertisement

Occurrence of Life Cycle Dependent Monophasic and Biphasic Molting in a Parasitic Isopod, Mothocya renardi

  • Aneesh Panakkool-Thamban
  • Sudha KappalliEmail author
Article

Abstract

This paper reports the occurrence of life cycle dependent monophasic and biphasic molting in Mothocya renardi (Bleeker, 1857), a protandrous hermaphroditic cymothoid parasitizing the banded needle fish, Strongylura leiura. Although the molting in manca I is monophasic, the infective manca II, juvenile and adult stages including male, transitional, and female opt biphasic molting in which the posterior half of the body molts first, followed by the anterior half. The molt cycle (monophasic and biphasic) in M. renardi is broadly divided in to four sequential stages, premolt, molt, postmolt and intermolt. Five distinct premolt stages (D0-D4) were also identified through the microscopic observation of characteristic changes reflected in different appendages of manca stages and adult infective stages. Pleotelson, uropod rami and dactylus of the first pereopod and antennae were used for the identification of stages of monophasic molt cycle. By undergoing monophasic molting, the manca I was transformed into the manca II which then undergoes biphasic molt. The characteristic changes related to biphasic molting were well reflected in the maxillule. When the maxillule showed characters of the premolt stage D2, the posterior half of the body had already exuviated. Molting of the anterior half ensued within 2–3 days after posterior half ecdysis. Occurrence of a series of biphasic molts resulted in the transformation of manca II into the successive stages in the order juvenile, male, transitional and female.

Keywords

Cymothoid Mothocya renardi Molt cycle Monophasic molt Biphasic molt 

Notes

Acknowledgements

SK gratefully acknowledges University Grant Commission, New Delhi [F.No:38-218/2009(SR) dated 24/12/2009], Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment, Government of Kerala [No. (T) 093/SRS/2011/CSTE dated 25/06/2011& KSCSTE/5224/2017-SRSLS dated 28/08/2018] and Department of Science and Technology, Government of India (DST-SERB:EMR/2016/001163 dated 28.08.2017) for financial support to carry out this work and the preparation of the manuscript.

Author’s Contribution

APT worked on the topic and prepared the first draft of the manuscript. SK drew out the concept, supervised the work, interpreted the results, corrected and finalized the manuscript. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.

Funding Information

This study was funded by University Grant Commission, New Delhi (F.No:38–218/2009(SR); dated: 24/12/2009), Kerala State Council for Science Technology and Environment, Government of Kerala (No. (T) 093/SRS/2011/CSTE; dated: 25/06/2011) and Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India DST-SERB (EMR/2016/001163 dated 28.08.2017).

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with animals which require ethical approval.

Sampling and Field Studies

Permission from the competent authority is not required as the specimens (parasitic isopods and the host fish) sampled for the present study were not in the scheduled list of protected animals.

References

  1. Amrutha VS, Priya TAJ, Sudha K, (2019) Biphasic moult cycle of the parasitic isopod Norileca indica (H. Milne Edwards, 1840) (Isopoda: Cymothoidea): stage-wise characterisation and haemolymph ecdysteroids titre. Journal of Crustacean BiologyGoogle Scholar
  2. Aneesh PT, Kottarathil HA, Kappalli S (2016a) Branchial cymothoids infesting the marine food fishes of Malabar coast. J Parasit Dis 40(4):1270–1277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Aneesh PT, Sudha K, Helna AK, Anilkumar G, Trilles JP (2015) Cymothoa frontalis, a cymothoid isopod parasitizing the belonid fish, Strongylura strongylura from the Malabar coast (Kerala, India): re-description, prevalence and life cycle. Zool Stud 54:42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Aneesh PT, Sudha K, Helna AK, Anilkumar G (2016b) Mothocya renardi (Bleeker, 1857) (Crustacea: Isopoda: Cymothoidae) parasitizing Strongylura leiura (Bleeker) (Belonidae) off the Malabar coast of India: re-description, occurrence and life cycle. Syst Parasitol 93(6):583–599CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Aneesh PT (2014) Studies on parasitic crustaceans infesting the fishes of Malabar Coast. Ph.D thesis, Kannur University, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  6. Anilkumar G (1980) Reproductive physiology of female crustaceans. Ph.D thesis, University of Calicut, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  7. Anilkumar G, Adiyodi KG (1985) The role of eyestalk hormones in vitellogenesis during the breeding season in the crab, Paratelphusa hydrodromous (Herbst). Biol Bull 169:689–695CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Borowsky B (1996) Laboratory observations on the life history of the isopod Sphaeroma quadridentatum say, 1818. Crustaceana 69:94–100CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bruce NL (1986) Revision of the isopod crustacean genus Mothocya Costa, in Hope, 1851 (Cymothoidae: Flabellifera), parasitic on marine fishes. J Nat Hist 20:1089–1192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Carlisle DB (1956) Studies on the endocrinology isopod crustaceans Molting in Ligia oceanica (L). Journal of Marine Biology Association 35:515–520CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Carlisle DB, Dohrn PFR (1953) Studies on Lysmata seticaudata Risso (Crustacea Decadopa) II, experimental evidence for a growth and molt accelerating factor obtainable from eye stalk. Pubblicazioni della Stazione Zoologica di Napoli 24:69–83Google Scholar
  12. Chang ES (1989) Endocrine regulation of molting in Crustacea. Review of Aquatic Science 1:131–157Google Scholar
  13. Drach P (1939) Mue et cycle d'intermue chez les crustaces decacapodes Annales de 1’Institut Oceanographique (Monaco) 19: 103-391Google Scholar
  14. George RW, Sheard K (1954) Ecdysis in the isopod Porcellio scaber (Latreille). Australian Journal of Zoology 2:75–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. George YR (1972) Biphasic molting in isopod Crustacea and the finding of an unusual mode of molting in the antarctic genus Glyptonotus. J Nat Hist 6:651–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Gorvett H (1947) The tegumental glands in the land isopods a rosette glands. Q J Microsc Sci 87:209–235Google Scholar
  17. Grabda J (1991) Marine fish parasitology, an outline Weinheim; New York : VCH ; Warszawa : PWN, Polish Scientific Publishers, 306Google Scholar
  18. Kuballa AV, Elizur A (2008) Differential expression profiling of components associated with exoskeletal hardening in crustaceans. BMC Genomics 9:575CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lawlor LR (1976) Molting, growth and reproductive strategies in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. Ecology 57:1179–1194CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Leonardos I, Trilles JP (2003) Host-parasite relationships: occurrence and effect of the parasitic isopod Mothocya epimerica on sand smelt Atherina boyeri in the Mesolongi and Etolikon lagoons (W Greece). Dis Aquat Org 54:243–251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lyle WG, MacDonald CD (1983) Molt stage determination in the Hawaiian spiny lobster Panulirus marginatus. J Crustac Biol 3(2):208–216CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Mills BJ, Lake PS (1975) Setal development and molt staging in the crayfish, Prarstacoids tasmanicus (Erichson) (Decapoda: Parastacidae). Aust J Mar Freshwat Res 26:103–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Numanoi H (1934) Calcium in the blood of Ligia exotica during non-molting phases. Journal of the Faculty of Science the University of Tokyo 4(3):351–358Google Scholar
  24. Peebles JB (1977) A rapid technique for molt staging in live Macrobrachium rosenbergii. Aquaculture 12:173–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Price JB, Holdich DM (1980) An ultrastructural study of the integument during the moult cycle of the woodlouse, Oniscus asellus (Crustacea, Isopoda). Zoomorphologie 95(3):250–263CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Schöbl J (1879) Ueber die Fortpflanzung Isopoder Crustaceen. Archiv für Mikroskopische Anatomie 17(1):125–140CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Sindermann CJ (1990) Principal diseases of marine fish and shellfish. Vol I Academic Press, LondonGoogle Scholar
  28. Skinner DM (1985) Molting and regeneration In: Bliss DE and LH Mantel (eds), The Biology of Crustacea Vol - 9 Academic Press, New York, 43–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Steel CGH (1980) Mechanisms of coordination between molting and reproduction in terrestrial isopod. Crustacean Biological Bulletin 159:206–218CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Štrus J (1990) Moulting and functional morphology of the digestive system in Ligia italica (Isopoda, Crustacea) Ph.D thesis. University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana SloveniaGoogle Scholar
  31. Štrus J, Compere P (1996) Ultrastructural analysis of the integument during the moult cycle in Ligia italica (Crustacea, Isopoda). Pflügers Archiv European Journal of Physiology 431(S6):R251–R252CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sudha K (1992) Studies on oogenesis and the role of storage tissues in decapod crustaceans. Ph.D Thesis, University of Calicut, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  33. Sudha K, Anilkumar G (1996) Seasonal growth and reproduction in a highly fecund brachyuran crab Metopograpsus messor (Forskal) (Grapsidae). Hydrobiologia 319:15–21CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Sudha K, Anilkumar G (2007) Elevated ecdysteroids titer and precocious molt and vitellogenesis induced by eyestalk ablation in the estuarine crab, Metapograpsus messor (Brachyura: Decapoda). J Crustac Biol 27(2):304–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Sudha K, Supriya NT, Anilkumar G, Chang ES (2012) Hemolymph Ecdysteroid titres in a brachyuran crab (Uca triangularis) that concomitantly undergoes molting and reproduction. Zool Stud 51(7):966–976Google Scholar
  36. Suganthi AS (1996) Studies on the semenogenesis and sperm storage in brachyuran decapods. Ph.D Thesis, University of Calicut, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  37. Supriya NT (2011) Studies on hormonal regulation and storage physiology of growth and reproduction in decapod crustaceans. Ph.D Thesis, Kannur University, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  38. Supriya NT, Sudha K, Krishnakumar V, Anilkumar G (2017) Molt and reproduction enhancement together with hemolymph ecdysteroid elevation under eyestalk ablation in the female fiddler crab, Uca triangularis (Brachyura: Decapoda). Chin J Oceanol Limnol 35(3):645–657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Suzuki S, Kuramochi T, Ueno M (2013) Female sexual receptivity in the sandy-beach isopod Tylos granuliferus (Crustacea). Invertebr Reprod Dev 57(1):27–36CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Syama VP (2009) Studies on hormonal regulation of growth and reproduction in decapod crustaceans. Ph.D Thesis, Kannur University, Kerala, IndiaGoogle Scholar
  41. Tait J (1917) Experiments and observations on crustacea II Molting of isopods. Proceedings of Royal Society Edinburg 37:59–68CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Trilles JP (1968) Recherches sur les isopodes Cymothoidae des côtes francaises. Ph.D Thesis, University of Montpellier II, MontpellierGoogle Scholar
  43. Trilles JP (1969) Researches Sur les isopods “Cymothoidae” des côtes francaises apercu général et comparative Sur le bionomie et la sexualité de ces crustacés (researches on the isopod Cymothoidae of French coasts general and comparative overview on bionomics and the sexuality of these crustaceans). Bulletinde la Société zoologique de France 94(3):433–445Google Scholar
  44. Trilles JP (1994) Les Cymothoidae (Crustacea, Isopoda) du Monde Prodrome pour une faune. Studia Marina 21/22 (1–2) (1991): 5–288Google Scholar
  45. Vallabhan DL (1979) Observations on the molting phenomenon of an isopod, Sphaeroma walker. Proceedings of Indian Academy of Sciences 88 B. Part 1(4):257–264Google Scholar
  46. Wieser W (1964) Uber die hautung von Porcellio scaber Latr. Verhandlungen der Deutschen Zoologischen Gesellschaft 174–195Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of ZoologySree Narayana CollegeKannurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Zoology, School of Biological SciencesCentral University of KeralaKasaragodIndia

Personalised recommendations