Severe Scoliosis and Fin Deformities in Three Fish Species Collected from Jubail Vicinity, Saudi Arabia, Arabian Gulf

  • Laith A. Jawad
  • Mustafa Ibrahim
  • Mahmoud M. S. Farrag


The anomalies in fish fall into two main categories: severe ones that affect their fitness, and less severe ones that don’t impact survival and may occur as a result of various external and internal factors. Abnormally developed fish can be used as indicators of water pollution because of their high incidence in polluted areas. The objectives of the present study were to report and describe for the first time severe cases of scoliosis and fin deformities in fish from Saudi Arabia. Morphological anomalies, in general, can reduce the weight of fish and, more importantly, impact the value per kg sold. Therefore, the fisheries industries should conduct research into the various etiological causes of the deformities before any management policy can be chosen.


Anomalies Dorsal fin Anal fin Caudal fin Vertebral abnormalities Vertebral column 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Statement of Human Rights

For this type of study formal consent is not required.

Ethical Approval

This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.AucklandNew Zealand
  2. 2.Ministry of Agriculture, Fish Welfare BranchEl-Jubail ProvinceSaudi Arabia
  3. 3.Marine Science and Fishes Branch, Zoology Department, Faculty of ScienceAl-Azhar University (Assuit)AlexandriaEgypt

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