Alumina supported zinc oxide catalyst for production of biodiesel from kesambi oil and optimization to achieve highest yields of biodiesel

  • Nyoman Puspa AsriEmail author
  • Siswanti Soe’eib
  • Bambang Poedjojono
  • Suprapto
Original Paper


Biodiesel is one of the promising alternative energy substitutes for fossil fuel. In this work kesambi (Schleichera Oleosa L.) oil (SOO) is converted into biodiesel with clean technology using alumina supported zinc oxide solid catalysts. The alumina supported zinc oxide (AZO) catalyst was prepared by the precipitation and gel method and calcined at a temperature of 500 °C. The synthesized catalyst was characterized by Breneuer-Emmet-Teller (BET) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) methods. The surface area, total pore volume and mean pore diameter of the catalyst powder obtained were 71.561 m2 g−1, 0.137 cm3 g−1, and 8.149 nm, respectively. The effects of catalyst amount, the molar ratio of oil to methanol and time of reaction on the yield of biodiesel were investigated. The results showed that those three variables significantly influenced the yield of biodiesel. The highest biodiesel yield of 92.29% was obtained at a catalyst loading of 4% (wt% to oil), a molar ratio of oil to methanol of 1:12, a reaction time of 6 h and a reaction temperature of 65 °C.


Biodiesel Kesambi oil Solid catalyst Transesterification Zinc oxide 



The authors would like gratitude to Directorate of Research and Community Services, Directorate General of higher education, the Ministry of Research Technology and Higher Education of Republic Indonesia, for the financial support through the research grant in the fiscal year of 2017 by Contract No. 06/LPPM/UNIPRA/IV/2016 and 05/LPPM/UNIPRA/IV/2017.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

On behalf of all authors, the corresponding author states that there is no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing AG 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringWR. Supratman UniversitySurabayaIndonesia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Industrial TechnologySepuluh Nopember Institute of TechnologySurabayaIndonesia

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