Ionic liquid-mediated functionalization of graphene-based materials for versatile applications: a review

  • Chandrabhan VermaEmail author
  • Eno E. EbensoEmail author


Industrial applications of the graphene (G) and graphene oxide (GO) can be further explored by making them more dispersible in the aqueous and organic environments. Several attempts have been performed to enhance the dispersity of the G and GO in which surface functionalization is one of the most effective methods. Recently, surface functionalization of G and GO using ionic liquids is gaining particular emphasis because of their high thermal and chemical stability, low volatility, very high ability to dissolve a wide range of compounds and more importantly their environmental-friendly behaviour. The covalent functionalization of G and GO is mostly being achieved by acylation, esterification, isocyanate formation, nucleophilic ring opening, amide formation, and diazotization and cycloaddition reactions. Non-covalent functionalization mostly involves electrostatic forces, hydrogen bonding, ππ interactions, van der Waals interaction and donor–acceptor interactions. Because of their high dipolar nature, ionic liquids strongly interact with the sp2-hydrodized carbon networks of G and GO sheets and make them more dispersible as compared to their native networks. In the present review article, we described the collection of reports available on covalent and non-covalent functionalization of G and GO using ionic liquids and their industrial applications. The ionic liquid-functionalized graphene (G-IL) and graphene oxide (GO-IL) are extensively used in pollutants decontamination, sensing and bio-sensing, lubrication, catalysis, and carbon dioxide capturing and hydrogen production. The G-IL and GO-IL represent an essential class of materials for versatile future applications.


Graphene-based materials Nanomaterials Ionic liquids Sustainable chemistry Functionalization Dispersibility 





Graphene oxide


Reduced graphene oxide


Graphene ionic liquid


Graphene oxide ionic liquid


Graphene-based materials






Atomic force microscopy


X-ray diffraction


Scanning tunnelling microscopy


Density functional theory


Molecular dynamics


Monte Carlo




Transmission electron microscopy


Fourier transform infrared


X-ray photoelectron


Small-angle X-ray scattering


Methylene blue


Thermogravimetric analysis


Scanning electron microscope


Energy-dispersive X-ray


Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy


Glassy carbon electrode


Carcinoembryonic antigen




Protons exchange membrane fuel cells


Anion exchange membrane fuel cells


Hydrogen-exfoliated graphene




1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium methane sulphonate


1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate


1-Octyl, 3-methyl imidazolium hexafluorophosphate


1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium Chloride


1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium acetate


1-Butyl, 3-methyl imidazolium bis (trifluoro-methylsulfonyl)amide


1-[3-(N-pyrrolyl) propyl]-3-butylimidazolium bromide



Chandrabhan Verma gratefully acknowledges the North-West University (Mafikeng Campus), South Africa, for providing financial supports under Post-doctoral Fellowship scheme.


  1. 1.
    Rao CeNeR, Sood AeK, Subrahmanyam KeS, Govindaraj A (2009) Graphene: the new two‐dimensional nanomaterial. Angew Chem Int Ed 48:7752–7777CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Stankovich S, Piner RD, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2006) Synthesis and exfoliation of isocyanate-treated graphene oxide nanoplatelets. Carbon 44:3342–3347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Idowu A, Boesl B, Agarwal A (2018) 3D graphene foam-reinforced polymer composites:a review. Carbon. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sun CQ, Sun Y, Nie Y, Wang Y, Pan J, Ouyang G, Pan L, Sun Z (2009) Coordination-resolved C–C bond length and the C 1 s binding energy of carbon allotropes and the effective atomic coordination of the few-layer graphene. J Phys Chem C 113:16464–16467CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    de Souza FA, Amorim RG, Prasongkit J, Scopel WL, Scheicher RH, Rocha AR (2018) Topological line defects in graphene for applications in gas sensing. Carbon 129:803–808CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Wallace PR (1947) The band theory of graphite. Phys Rev 71:622CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Falkovsky L, Varlamov A (2007) Space-time dispersion of graphene conductivity. Eur Phys J B 56:281–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Geim A (2012) Graphene prehistory. Phys Scr 2012:014003CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Novoselov KS, Geim AK, Morozov SV, Jiang D, Zhang Y, Dubonos SV, Grigorieva IV, Firsov AA (2004) Electric field effect in atomically thin carbon films. Science 306:666–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Paredes J, Villar-Rodil S, Martínez-Alonso A, Tascon J (2008) Graphene oxide dispersions in organic solvents. Langmuir 24:10560–10564CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Yang Y, Han C, Jiang B, Iocozzia J, He C, Shi D, Jiang T, Lin Z (2016) Graphene-based materials with tailored nanostructures for energy conversion and storage. Mater Sci Eng R Rep 102:1–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Stankovich S, Dikin DA, Piner RD, Kohlhaas KA, Kleinhammes A, Jia Y, Wu Y, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2007) Synthesis of graphene-based nanosheets via chemical reduction of exfoliated graphite oxide. Carbon 45:1558–1565CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Huang X, Yin Z, Wu S, Qi X, He Q, Zhang Q, Yan Q, Boey F, Zhang H (2011) Graphene-based materials: synthesis, characterization, properties, and applications. Small 7:1876–1902CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Li D, Kaner RB (2008) Graphene-based materials. Nat Nanotechnol 3:101CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Stoller MD, Park S, Zhu Y, An J, Ruoff RS (2008) Graphene-based ultracapacitors. Nano Lett 8:3498–3502CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Wang X, Zhi L, Müllen K (2008) Transparent, conductive graphene electrodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. Nano Lett 8:323–327CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Kim KS, Zhao Y, Jang H, Lee SY, Kim JM, Kim KS, Ahn J-H, Kim P, Choi J-Y, Hong BH (2009) Large-scale pattern growth of graphene films for stretchable transparent electrodes. Nature 457:706CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Geim AK, Novoselov KS (2010) The rise of graphene, nanoscience and technology: a collection of reviews from nature journals. World Scientific, Singapore pp 11–19Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Green AA, Hersam MC (2009) Emerging methods for producing monodisperse graphene dispersions. J Phys Chem Lett 1:544–549CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Shih C-J, Vijayaraghavan A, Krishnan R, Sharma R, Han J-H, Ham M-H, Jin Z, Lin S, Paulus GL, Reuel NF (2011) Bi-and trilayer graphene solutions. Nat Nanotechnol 6:439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Novoselov KS, Fal V, Colombo L, Gellert P, Schwab M, Kim K (2012) A roadmap for graphene. Nature 490:192CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lee C, Wei X, Kysar JW, Hone J (2008) Measurement of the elastic properties and intrinsic strength of monolayer graphene. Science 321:385–388CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Gan Y, Sun L, Banhart F (2008) One-and two-dimensional diffusion of metal atoms in graphene. Small 4:587–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Liu N, Luo F, Wu H, Liu Y, Zhang C, Chen J (2008) One-step ionic-liquid-assisted electrochemical synthesis of ionic-liquid-functionalized graphene sheets directly from graphite. Adv Func Mater 18:1518–1525CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Paek E, Pak AJ, Hwang GS (2013) A computational study of the interfacial structure and capacitance of graphene in [BMIM][PF6] ionic liquid. J Electrochem Soc 160:A1–A10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Shakourian-Fard M, Jamshidi Z, Bayat A, Kamath G (2015) Meta-hybrid density functional theory study of adsorption of imidazolium-and ammonium-based ionic liquids on graphene sheet. J Phys Chem C 119:7095–7108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Vijayakumar M, Schwenzer B, Shutthanandan V, Hu J, Liu J, Aksay IA (2014) Elucidating graphene–ionic liquid interfacial region: a combined experimental and computational study. Nano Energy 3:152–158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Maria-Teodora P, Tasis D, Papadimitriou KD, Gkermpoura S, Galiotisa C, Tsitsilianis C (2015) Colloidal stabilization of graphene sheets by ionizable amphiphilic block copolymers in various media. RSC Adv 5:89447–89460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Maria-Theodora P, Tasis D, Tsitsilianis C (2014) Ionizable star copolymer-assisted graphene phase transfer between immiscible liquids: organic solvent/water/ionic liquid. ACS Macro Lett 31:981–984Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Papadimitriou KD, Skountzos EN, Gkermpoura SS, Polyzos I, Mavrantzas VG, Galiotis C, Tsitsilianis C (2016) Molecular modeling combined with advanced chemistry for the rational design of efficient graphene dispersing agents. ACS Macro Lett. 5:24–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Yang H, Shan C, Li F, Han D, Zhang Q, Niu L (2009) Covalent functionalization of polydisperse chemically-converted graphene sheets with amine-terminated ionic liquid. Chem Commun 26:3880–3882CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yang H, Li F, Shan C, Han D, Zhang Q, Niu L, Ivaska A (2009) Covalent functionalization of chemically converted graphene sheets via silane and its reinforcement. J Mater Chem 19:4632–4638CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Marcano DC, Kosynkin DV, Berlin JM, Sinitskii A, Sun Z, Slesarev A, Alemany LB, Lu W, Tour JM (2010) Improved synthesis of graphene oxide. ACS Nano 4:4806–4814CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Chen D, Feng H, Li J (2012) Graphene oxide: preparation, functionalization, and electrochemical applications. Chem Rev 112:6027–6053CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Niyogi S, Bekyarova E, Itkis ME, Zhang H, Shepperd K, Hicks J, Sprinkle M, Berger C, Lau CN, Deheer WA (2010) Spectroscopy of covalently functionalized graphene. Nano Lett 10:4061–4066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Georgakilas V, Otyepka M, Bourlinos AB, Chandra V, Kim N, Kemp KC, Hobza P, Zboril R, Kim KS (2012) Functionalization of graphene: covalent and non-covalent approaches, derivatives and applications. Chem Rev 112:6156–6214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Gong X, Liu G, Li Y, Yu DYW, Teoh WY (2016) Functionalized-graphene composites: fabrication and applications in sustainable energy and environment. Chem Mater 28:8082–8118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Georgakilas V, Tiwari JN, Kemp KC, Perman JA, Bourlinos AB, Kim KS, Zboril R (2016) Noncovalent functionalization of graphene and graphene oxide for energy materials, biosensing, catalytic, and biomedical applications. Chem Rev 116:5464–5519CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Liu Z, Robinson JT, Sun X, Dai H (2008) PEGylated nanographene oxide for delivery of water-insoluble cancer drugs. J Am Chem Soc 130:10876–10877CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Veca LM, Lu F, Meziani MJ, Cao L, Zhang P, Qi G, Qu L, Shrestha M, Sun Y-P (2009) Polymer functionalization and solubilization of carbon nanosheets. Chem Commun 14:2565–2567CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Jang S-Y, Kim Y-G, Kim DY, Kim H-G, Jo SM (2012) Electrodynamically sprayed thin films of aqueous dispersible graphene nanosheets: highly efficient cathodes for dye-sensitized solar cells. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:3500–3507CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Niyogi S, Bekyarova E, Itkis ME, McWilliams JL, Hamon MA, Haddon RC (2006) Solution properties of graphite and graphene. J Am Chem Soc 128:7720–7721CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mohanty N, Berry V (2008) Graphene-based single-bacterium resolution biodevice and DNA transistor: interfacing graphene derivatives with nanoscale and microscale biocomponents. Nano Lett 8:4469–4476CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karousis N, Sandanayaka AS, Hasobe T, Economopoulos SP, Sarantopoulou E, Tagmatarchis N (2011) Graphene oxide with covalently linked porphyrin antennae: synthesis, characterization and photophysical properties. J Mater Chem 21:109–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Liu Y, Zhou J, Zhang X, Liu Z, Wan X, Tian J, Wang T, Chen Y (2009) Synthesis, characterization and optical limiting property of covalently oligothiophene-functionalized graphene material. Carbon 47:3113–3121CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Zhang X, Feng Y, Huang D, Li Y, Feng W (2010) Investigation of optical modulated conductance effects based on a graphene oxide–azobenzene hybrid. Carbon 48:3236–3241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Park S, Dikin DA, Nguyen ST, Ruoff RS (2009) Graphene oxide sheets chemically cross-linked by polyallylamine. J Phys Chem C 113:15801–15804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Salavagione HJ, Gomez MA, Martinez G (2009) Polymeric modification of graphene through esterification of graphite oxide and poly (vinyl alcohol). Macromolecules 42:6331–6334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Krol P (2007) Synthesis methods, chemical structures and phase structures of linear polyurethanes. Properties and applications of linear polyurethanes in polyurethane elastomers, copolymers and ionomers. Prog Mater Sci 52:915–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. 50.
    Blagbrough IS, Mackenzie NE, Ortiz C, Scott AI (1986) The condensation reaction between isocyanates and carboxylic acids. A practical synthesis of substituted amides and anilides. Tetrahedron Lett 27:1251–1254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Bekyarova E, Itkis ME, Ramesh P, Berger C, Sprinkle M, de Heer WA, Haddon RC (2009) Chemical modification of epitaxial graphene: spontaneous grafting of aryl groups. J Am Chem Soc 131:1336–1337CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Gao W, Alemany LB, Ci L, Ajayan PM (2009) New insights into the structure and reduction of graphite oxide. Nat Chem 1:403CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Bai H, Xu Y, Zhao L, Li C, Shi G (2009) Non-covalent functionalization of graphene sheets by sulfonated polyaniline. Chem Commun 13:1667–1669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Hao R, Qian W, Zhang L, Hou Y (2008) Aqueous dispersions of TCNQ-anion-stabilized graphene sheets. Chem Commun 48:6576–6578CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Qi X, Pu KY, Zhou X, Li H, Liu B, Boey F, Huang W, Zhang H (2010) Conjugated-polyelectrolyte-functionalized reduced graphene oxide with excellent solubility and stability in polar solvents. Small 6:663–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Xu Y, Bai H, Lu G, Li C, Shi G (2008) Flexible graphene films via the filtration of water-soluble noncovalent functionalized graphene sheets. J Am Chem Soc 130:5856–5857CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Lotya M, Hernandez Y, King PJ, Smith RJ, Nicolosi V, Karlsson LS, Blighe FM, De S, Wang Z, McGovern I (2009) Liquid phase production of graphene by exfoliation of graphite in surfactant/water solutions. J Am Chem Soc 131:3611–3620CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Zu S-Z, Han B-H (2009) Aqueous dispersion of graphene sheets stabilized by pluronic copolymers: formation of supramolecular hydrogel. J Phys Chem C 113:13651–13657CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Li X, Zhang G, Bai X, Sun X, Wang X, Wang E, Dai H (2008) Highly conducting graphene sheets and Langmuir–Blodgett films. Nat Nanotechnol 3:538CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Welton T (1999) Room-temperature ionic liquids. Solvents for synthesis and catalysis. Chem Rev 99:2071–2084CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Wasserscheid P, Welton T (2008) Ionic liquids in synthesis. Wiley, HobokenGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Kasprzak D, Stępniak I, Galiński M (2018) Acetate-and lactate-based ionic liquids: synthesis, characterisation and electrochemical properties. J Mol Liq 264:233–241CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Rout A, Mishra S, Venkatesan K, Antony M, Pandey N, Subramanian S (2017) Physicochemical and radiolytic degradation properties of dihexyloctanmide-imidazolium ionic liquid. J Mol Liq 247:93–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. 64.
    Matczak L, Johanning C, Gil E, Guo H, Smith TW, Schertzer M, Iglesias P (2018) Effect of cation nature on the lubricating and physicochemical properties of three ionic liquids. Tribol Int 124:23–33CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Patel DD, Lee JM (2012) Applications of ionic liquids. Chem Rec 12:329–355CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Plechkova NV, Seddon KR (2008) Applications of ionic liquids in the chemical industry. Chem Soc Rev 37:123–150CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. 67.
    Lu J, Yan F, Texter J (2009) Advanced applications of ionic liquids in polymer science. Prog Polym Sci 34:431–448CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    Wei D, Ivaska A (2008) Applications of ionic liquids in electrochemical sensors. Anal Chim Acta 607:126–135CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. 69.
    Balraj A, Ramalingam A, Jayaraman D (2018) Potential applications of ionic liquids (IL) for the treatment of synthetic turbid water (STW). J Mol Liq 256:121–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Lalitha M, Lakshmipathi S (2017) Interface energetics of [Emim] + [X] − and [Bmim] + [X] − (X = BF4, Cl, PF6, TfO, Tf2N) based ionic liquids on graphene, defective graphene, and graphyne surfaces. J Mol Liq 236:124–134CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. 71.
    Zarrougui R, Hachicha R, Rjab R, Ghodbane O (2018) 1-Allyl-3-methylimidazolium-based ionic liquids employed as suitable electrolytes for high energy density supercapacitors based on graphene nanosheets electrodes. J Mol Liq 249:795–804CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. 72.
    Baldelli S, Bao J, Wu W, Pei S-S (2011) Sum frequency generation study on the orientation of room-temperature ionic liquid at the graphene–ionic liquid interface. Chem Phys Lett 516:171–173CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. 73.
    García G, Atilhan M, Aparicio S (2015) Adsorption of choline benzoate ionic liquid on graphene, silicene, germanene and boron-nitride nanosheets: a DFT perspective. Phys Chem Chem Phys 17:16315–16326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. 74.
    Tokuda H, Hayamizu K, Ishii K, Susan MABH, Watanabe M (2004) Physicochemical properties and structures of room temperature ionic liquids. 1. Variation of anionic species. J Phys Chem B 108:16593–16600CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 75.
    Tokuda H, Hayamizu K, Ishii K, Susan MABH, Watanabe M (2005) Physicochemical properties and structures of room temperature ionic liquids. 2. Variation of alkyl chain length in imidazolium cation. J Phys Chem B 109:6103–6110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. 76.
    Khan AS, Nasrullah A, Ullah Z, Bhat A, Ghanem OB, Muhammad N, Rashid MU, Man Z (2018) Thermophysical properties and ecotoxicity of new nitrile functionalised protic ionic liquids. J Mol Liq 249:583–590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 77.
    Anderson JL, Armstrong DW (2005) Immobilized ionic liquids as high-selectivity/high-temperature/high-stability gas chromatography stationary phases. Anal Chem 77:6453–6462CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 78.
    Huddleston JG, Visser AE, Reichert WM, Willauer HD, Broker GA, Rogers RD (2001) Characterization and comparison of hydrophilic and hydrophobic room temperature ionic liquids incorporating the imidazolium cation. Green Chem 3:156–164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. 79.
    Endres F, El Abedin SZ (2006) Air and water stable ionic liquids in physical chemistry. Phys Chem Chem Phys 8:2101–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. 80.
    Aparicio S, Atilhan M, Karadas F (2010) Thermophysical properties of pure ionic liquids: review of present situation. Ind Eng Chem Res 49:9580–9595CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. 81.
    Bonhote P, Dias A-P, Papageorgiou N, Kalyanasundaram K, Grätzel M (1996) Hydrophobic, highly conductive ambient-temperature molten salts. Inorg Chem 35:1168–1178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. 82.
    Jacquemin J, Husson P, Padua AA, Majer V (2006) Density and viscosity of several pure and water-saturated ionic liquids. Green Chem 8:172–180CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 83.
    Tariq M, Forte P, Gomes MC, Lopes JC, Rebelo L (2009) Densities and refractive indices of imidazolium-and phosphonium-based ionic liquids: effect of temperature, alkyl chain length, and anion. J Chem Thermodyn 41:790–798CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. 84.
    Wang Y, Voth GA (2005) Unique spatial heterogeneity in ionic liquids. J Am Chem Soc 127:12192–12193CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. 85.
    Ghani NA, Sairi NA, Aroua MK, Alias Y, Yusoff R (2014) Density, surface tension, and viscosity of ionic liquids (1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium diethylphosphate and 1, 3-dimethylimidazolium dimethylphosphate) aqueous ternary mixtures with MDEA. J Chem Eng Data 59:1737–1746CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. 86.
    Kolbeck C, Lehmann J, Lovelock K, Cremer T, Paape N, Wasserscheid P, Froba A, Maier F, Steinruck H-P (2010) Density and surface tension of ionic liquids. J Phys Chem B 114:17025–17036CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. 87.
    Seddon KR, Stark A, Torres M-J (2000) Influence of chloride, water, and organic solvents on the physical properties of ionic liquids. Pure Appl Chem 72:2275–2287CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 88.
    Shahsavari S, Mesbah M, Soroush E, Farhangian H, Alizadeh S, Soltanali S (2018) A simple group contribution correlation for modeling the surface tension of pure ionic liquids. J Mol Liq. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. 89.
    Atashrouz S, Mirshekar H, Mohaddespour A (2017) A robust modeling approach to predict the surface tension of ionic liquids. J Mol Liq 236:344–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. 90.
    Mozaffari F (2015) Modeling the volumetric properties of some imidazolium and phosphonium based ionic liquids from surface tension. J Mol Liq 212:461–466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. 91.
    Freire MG, Carvalho PJ, Fernandes AM, Marrucho IM, Queimada AJ, Coutinho JA (2007) Surface tensions of imidazolium based ionic liquids: anion, cation, temperature and water effect. J Colloid Interface Sci 314:621–630CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. 92.
    Law G, Watson PR (2001) Surface tension measurements of N-alkylimidazolium ionic liquids. Langmuir 17:6138–6141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. 93.
    Martino W, de La Mora JF, Yoshida Y, Saito G, Wilkes J (2006) Surface tension measurements of highly conducting ionic liquids. Green Chem 8:390–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. 94.
    Black JM, Zhu M, Zhang P, Unocic RR, Guo D, Okatan MB, Dai S, Cummings PT, Kalinin SV, Feng G (2016) Fundamental aspects of electric double layer force-distance measurements at liquid-solid interfaces using atomic force microscopy. Sci Rep 6:32389CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. 95.
    Kislenko SA, Samoylov IS, Amirov RH (2009) Molecular dynamics simulation of the electrochemical interface between a graphite surface and the ionic liquid [BMIM][PF 6]. Phys Chem Chem Phys 11:5584–5590CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. 96.
    Zhao W, Tang Y, Xi J, Kong J (2015) Functionalized graphene sheets with poly (ionic liquid) s and high adsorption capacity of anionic dyes. Appl Surf Sci 326:276–284CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  97. 97.
    Zambare R, Song X, Bhuvana S, Antony Prince JS, Nemade P (2017) Ultrafast dye removal using ionic liquid–graphene oxide sponge. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 5:6026–6035CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. 98.
    Wang H, Wei Y (2017) Magnetic graphene oxide modified by chloride imidazole ionic liquid for the high-efficiency adsorption of anionic dyes. RSC Adv 7:9079–9089CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. 99.
    Dizaji AK, Mortaheb HR, Mokhtarani B (2016) Noncovalently functionalized graphene oxide/graphene with imidazolium-based ionic liquids for adsorptive removal of dibenzothiophene from model fuel. J Mater Sci 51:10092–10103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. 100.
    Hou X, Lu X, Tang S, Wang L, Guo Y (2018) Graphene oxide reinforced ionic liquid-functionalized adsorbent for solid-phase extraction of phenolic acids. J Chromatogr B 1072:123–129CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. 101.
    Aliyari E, Alvand M, Shemirani F (2016) Modified surface-active ionic liquid-coated magnetic graphene oxide as a new magnetic solid phase extraction sorbent for preconcentration of trace nickel. RSC Adv 6:64193–64202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. 102.
    Nasrollahpour A, Moradi S, Khodaveisi W (2017) Effective removal of hexavalent chromium from aqueous solutions using ionic liquid modified graphene oxide sorbent. Chem Biochem Eng Q 31:325–334CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. 103.
    Li L, Luo C, Li X, Duan H, Wang X (2014) Preparation of magnetic ionic liquid/chitosan/graphene oxide composite and application for water treatment. Int J Biol Macromol 66:172–178CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 104.
    Zhou X, Zhang Y, Huang Z, Lu D, Zhu A, Shi G (2016) Ionic liquids modified graphene oxide composites: a high efficient adsorbent for phthalates from aqueous solution. Sci Rep 6:38417CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 105.
    Ding X, Wang Y, Wang Y, Pan Q, Chen J, Huang Y, Xu K (2015) Preparation of magnetic chitosan and graphene oxide-functional guanidinium ionic liquid composite for the solid-phase extraction of protein. Anal Chim Acta 861:36–46CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Valentini F, Roscioli D, Carbone M, Conte V, Floris B, Palleschi G, Flammini R, Bauer E, Nasillo G, Caponetti E (2012) Oxidized graphene in ionic liquids for assembling chemically modified electrodes: a structural and electrochemical characterization study. Anal Chem 84:5823–5831CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. 107.
    Valentini F, Carbone M, Palleschi G (2013) Graphene oxide nanoribbons (GNO), reduced graphene nanoribbons (GNR), and multi-layers of oxidized graphene functionalized with ionic liquids (GO-IL) for assembly of miniaturized electrochemical devices. Anal Bioanal Chem 405:3449–3474CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. 108.
    Saxena AP, Deepa M, Joshi AG, Bhandari S, Srivastava AK (2011) Poly (3, 4-ethylenedioxythiophene)-ionic liquid functionalized graphene/reduced graphene oxide nanostructures: improved conduction and electrochromism. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 3:1115–1126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. 109.
    Manoj D, Theyagarajan K, Saravanakumar D, Senthilkumar S, Thenmozhi K (2018) Aldehyde functionalized ionic liquid on electrochemically reduced graphene oxide as a versatile platform for covalent immobilization of biomolecules and biosensing. Biosens Bioelectron 103:104–112CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. 110.
    Wang Y, Li C, Wu T, Ye X (2018) Polymerized ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets as a sensitive platform for bisphenol a sensing. Carbon 129:21–28CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. 111.
    Li J, Wang Y, Sun Y, Ding C, Lin Y, Sun W, Luo C (2017) A novel ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide supported gold nanoparticle composite film for sensitive electrochemical detection of dopamine. RSC Adv 7:2315–2322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. 112.
    Mao H, Liang J, Zhang H, Pei Q, Liu D, Wu S, Zhang Y, Song X-M (2015) Poly (ionic liquids) functionalized polypyrrole/graphene oxide nanosheets for electrochemical sensor to detect dopamine in the presence of ascorbic acid. Biosens Bioelectron 70:289–298CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Wang C, Chen Y, Zhuo K, Wang J (2013) Simultaneous reduction and surface functionalization of graphene oxide via an ionic liquid for electrochemical sensors. Chem Commun 49:3336–3338CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. 114.
    Shang L, Zhao F, Zeng B (2013) Electrodeposition of PdAu alloy nanoparticles on ionic liquid functionalized graphene film for the voltammetric determination of oxalic acid. Electroanalysis 25:453–459CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. 115.
    Shang L, Zhao F, Zeng B (2015) Highly dispersive hollow PdAg alloy nanoparticles modified ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanoribbons for electrochemical sensing of nifedipine. Electrochim Acta 168:330–336CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 116.
    Du M, Yang T, Ma S, Zhao C, Jiao K (2011) Ionic liquid-functionalized graphene as modifier for electrochemical and electrocatalytic improvement: comparison of different carbon electrodes. Anal Chim Acta 690:169–174CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. 117.
    Zhao L, Zhao F, Zeng B (2013) Electrochemical determination of methyl parathion using a molecularly imprinted polymer–ionic liquid–graphene composite film coated electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 176:818–824CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. 118.
    Guo S, Wen D, Zhai Y, Dong S, Wang E (2011) Ionic liquid–graphene hybrid nanosheets as an enhanced material for electrochemical determination of trinitrotoluene. Biosens Bioelectron 26:3475–3481CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. 119.
    Sun J-Y, Huang K-J, Zhao S-F, Fan Y, Wu Z-W (2011) Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin on chitosan-room temperature ionic liquid-TiO2-graphene nanocomposite film modified electrode. Bioelectrochemistry 82:125–130CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. 120.
    Li R, Liu C, Ma M, Wang Z, Zhan G, Li B, Wang X, Fang H, Zhang H, Li C (2013) Synthesis of 1, 3-di (4-amino-1-pyridinium) propane ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanosheets and its application in direct electrochemistry of hemoglobin. Electrochim Acta 95:71–79CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  121. 121.
    Wang Z, Li F, Xia J, Xia L, Zhang F, Bi S, Shi G, Xia Y, Liu J, Li Y (2014) An ionic liquid-modified graphene based molecular imprinting electrochemical sensor for sensitive detection of bovine hemoglobin. Biosens Bioelectron 61:391–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. 122.
    Liu K, Zhang J, Yang G, Wang C, Zhu J-J (2010) Direct electrochemistry and electrocatalysis of hemoglobin based on poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene sheets/room temperature ionic liquid composite film. Electrochem Commun 12:402–405CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. 123.
    Zheng Y, Liu Z, Jing Y, Li J, Zhan H (2015) An acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on ionic liquid functionalized graphene–gelatin-modified electrode for sensitive detection of pesticides. Sens Actuators B Chem 210:389–397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. 124.
    Feng Q, Duan K, Ye X, Lu D, Du Y, Wang C (2014) A novel way for detection of eugenol via poly (diallyldimethylammonium chloride) functionalized graphene-MoS2 nano-flower fabricated electrochemical sensor. Sens Actuators B Chem 192:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. 125.
    Galdino NM, Brehm GS, Bussamara R, Gonçalves WD, Abarca G, Scholten JD (2017) Sputtering deposition of gold nanoparticles onto graphene oxide functionalized with ionic liquids: biosensor materials for cholesterol detection. J Mat Chem B 5:9482–9486CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  126. 126.
    Zhuang X, Chen D, Wang S, Liu H, Chen L (2017) Manganese dioxide nanosheet-decorated ionic liquid-functionalized graphene for electrochemical theophylline biosensing. Sens Actuators B Chem 251:185–191CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. 127.
    Wang N, Lin M, Dai H, Ma H (2016) Functionalized gold nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for ultrasensitive electrochemical sensing of mercury ions based on thymine–mercury–thymine structure. Biosens Bioelectron 79:320–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. 128.
    Liu W, Zhang J, Li C, Tang L, Zhang Z, Yang M (2013) A novel composite film derived from cysteic acid and PDDA-functionalized graphene: enhanced sensing material for electrochemical determination of metronidazole. Talanta 104:204–211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Peng J, Hou C, Hu X (2012) Determination of metronidazole in pharmaceutical dosage forms based on reduction at graphene and ionic liquid composite film modified electrode. Sens Actuators B Chem 169:81–87CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. 130.
    Linting Z, Ruiyi L, Zaijun L, Qianfang X, Yinjun F, Junkang L (2012) An immunosensor for ultrasensitive detection of aflatoxin B1 with an enhanced electrochemical performance based on graphene/conducting polymer/gold nanoparticles/the ionic liquid composite film on modified gold electrode with electrodeposition. Sens Actuators B Chem 174:359–365CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. 131.
    Li J, Miao D, Yang R, Qu L, Harrington PDB (2014) Synthesis of poly (sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) functionalized graphene/cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) nanocomposite and its application in electrochemical oxidation of 2, 4-dichlorophenol. Electrochim Acta 125:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 132.
    Wu M, Ai Y, Zeng B, Zhao F (2016) In situ solvothermal growth of metal-organic framework–ionic liquid functionalized graphene nanocomposite for highly efficient enrichment of chloramphenicol and thiamphenicol. J Chromatogr A 1427:1–7CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 133.
    Li J, Li Q, Zeng Y, Tang T, Pan Y, Li L (2015) An electrochemical sensor for the sensitive determination of phenylethanolamine A based on a novel composite of reduced graphene oxide and poly (ionic liquid). RSC Adv 5:717–725CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  134. 134.
    Meng X, Yin H, Xu M, Ai S, Zhu J (2012) Electrochemical determination of nonylphenol based on ionic liquid-functionalized graphene nanosheet modified glassy carbon electrode and its interaction with DNA. J Solid State Electrochem 16:2837–2843CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 135.
    Zhong X, Yuan R, Chai Y-Q (2012) Synthesis of chitosan-Prussian blue-graphene composite nanosheets for electrochemical detection of glucose based on pseudobienzyme channeling. Sens Actuators B Chem 162:334–340CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jiang Y, Zhang Q, Li F, Niu L (2012) Glucose oxidase and graphene bionanocomposite bridged by ionic liquid unit for glucose biosensing application. Sens Actuators B Chem 161:728–733CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 137.
    Yu L, Shi M, Yue X, Qu L (2015) A novel and sensitive hexadecyltrimethyl ammonium bromide functionalized graphene supported platinum nanoparticles composite modified glassy carbon electrode for determination of sunset yellow in soft drinks. Sens Actuators B Chem 209:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 138.
    Xu F, Yang L, Zhao F, Zeng B (2016) Electrochemical preparation of porous PtCu alloy on an ionic liquid functionalized graphene film for the electrocatalytic oxidation and amperometric detection of ethanol. Int J Electrochem Sci 11:1111–1120Google Scholar
  139. 139.
    Shan C, Yang H, Han D, Zhang Q, Ivaska A, Niu L (2010) Electrochemical determination of NADH and ethanol based on ionic liquid-functionalized graphene. Biosens Bioelectron 25:1504–1508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 140.
    Liu N, Ma Z (2014) Au–ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide immunosensing platform for simultaneous electrochemical detection of multiple analytes. Biosens Bioelectron 51:184–190CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Liu P, Dong M, Lu J, Guo H, Lu X, Liu X (2015) Simultaneous determination of 5-hydroxytryptamine and dopamine using ionic liquid functionalized graphene. Ionics 21:1111–1119CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  142. 142.
    Zhou N, Li J, Chen H, Liao C, Chen L (2013) A functional graphene oxide-ionic liquid composites–gold nanoparticle sensing platform for ultrasensitive electrochemical detection of Hg2+. Analyst 138:1091–1097CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  143. 143.
    Bagheri H, Afkhami A, Khoshsafar H, Rezaei M, Sabounchei SJ, Sarlakifar M (2015) Simultaneous electrochemical sensing of thallium, lead and mercury using a novel ionic liquid/graphene modified electrode. Anal Chim Acta 870:56–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 144.
    Chaiyo S, Mehmeti E, Žagar K, Siangproh W, Chailapakul O, Kalcher K (2016) Electrochemical sensors for the simultaneous determination of zinc, cadmium and lead using a Nafion/ionic liquid/graphene composite modified screen-printed carbon electrode. Anal Chim Acta 918:26–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  145. 145.
    Ni M, Leung MK, Leung DY, Sumathy K (2007) A review and recent developments in photocatalytic water-splitting using TiO2 for hydrogen production. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 11:401–425CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 146.
    del Pino AP, González-Campo A, Giraldo S, Peral J, György E, Logofatu C, Puigmartí-Luis J (2018) Synthesis of graphene-based photocatalysts for water splitting by laser-induced doping with ionic liquids. Carbon 130:48–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chinnappan A, Appiah-Ntiamoah R, Chung W-J, Kim H (2016) Ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide decorated with copper oxide nanostructures towards H2 generation from sodium borohydride. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:14491–14497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  148. 148.
    Yang Q, Lin CX, Liu FH, Li L, Zhang QG, Zhu AM, Liu QL (2018) Poly (2, 6-dimethyl-1, 4-phenylene oxide)/ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide anion exchange membranes for fuel cells. J Membr Sci 552:367–376CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wang C, Lin B, Qiao G, Wang L, Zhu L, Chu F, Feng T, Yuan N, Ding J (2016) Polybenzimidazole/ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite membrane for alkaline anion exchange membrane fuel cells. Mater Lett 173:219–222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. 150.
    Lin W, Yuan F, Xu Q, Chen H, Zhu X, Li N, Yuan F, Chu J Ding (2018) Protic ionic liquid/functionalized graphene oxide hybrid membranes for high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cell applications. Appl Surf Sci 455:295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  151. 151.
    Zarrin H, Higgins D, Jun Y, Chen Z, Fowler M (2011) Functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite membrane for low humidity and high temperature proton exchange membrane fuel cells. J Phys Chem C 115:20774–20781CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. 152.
    Liu X, Chen X, Hu Y, Gong T, Li H, Zhang Y (2017) Ionic-liquid-functionalized graphene nanoribbons for anion exchange membrane fuel cells. J Electrochem Soc 164:F433–F440CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  153. 153.
    Mo Y, Wan Y, Chau A, Huang F (2014) Graphene/ionic liquid composite films and ion exchange. Sci Rep 4:5466CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. 154.
    Tamilarasan P, Remya T, Ramaprabhu S (2013) Ionic liquid functionalized graphene for carbon dioxide capture. Graphene 1:3–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  155. 155.
    Huang L, Jin Y, Sun L, Chen F, Fan P, Zhong M, Yang J (2017) Graphene oxide functionalized by poly (ionic liquid) s for carbon dioxide capture. J Appl Polym Sci 134:44592Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Li Y, Cheng J, Hu L, Liu J, Zhou J, Cen K (2018) Graphene nanoplatelet and reduced graphene oxide functionalized by ionic liquid for CO2 capture. Energy Fuels, DOICrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. 157.
    Karunakaran M, Villalobos LF, Kumar M, Shevate R, Akhtar FH, Peinemann K-V (2017) Graphene oxide doped ionic liquid ultrathin composite membranes for efficient CO2 capture. J Mater Chem A 5:649–656CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. 158.
    Li X, Cheng Y, Zhang H, Wang S, Jiang Z, Guo R, Wu H (2015) Efficient CO2 capture by functionalized graphene oxide nanosheets as fillers to fabricate multi-permselective mixed matrix membranes. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 7:5528–5537CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  159. 159.
    Karousis N, Economopoulos SP, Sarantopoulou E, Tagmatarchis N (2010) Porphyrin counter anion in imidazolium-modified graphene-oxide. Carbon 48:854–860CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. 160.
    Garkoti C, Shabir J, Gupta P, Sharma M, Mozumdar S (2017) Heterogenization of amine-functionalized ionic liquids using graphene oxide as a support material: a highly efficient catalyst for the synthesis of 3-substituted indoles via Yonemitsu-type reaction. New J Chem 41:15545–15554CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. 161.
    Hanoon H, Kowsari E, Abdouss M, Zandi H, Ghasemi M (2017) Efficient preparation of acidic ionic liquid-functionalized reduced graphene oxide and its catalytic performance in synthesis of benzimidazole derivatives. Res Chem Intermed 43:1751–1766CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. 162.
    Zheng W, Tan R, Yin S, Zhang Y, Zhao G, Chen Y, Yin D (2015) Ionic liquid-functionalized graphene oxide as an efficient support for the chiral salen Mn (iii) complex in asymmetric epoxidation of unfunctionalized olefins. Catal Sci Technol 5:2092–2102CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  163. 163.
    Zhang W-H, He P-P, Wu S, Xu J, Li Y, Zhang G, Wei X-Y (2016) Graphene oxide grafted hydroxyl-functionalized ionic liquid: a highly efficient catalyst for cycloaddition of CO2 with epoxides. Appl Catal A 509:111–117CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 164.
    Ali E, Mojtaba H, Elaheh K, Samira D, Javad T (2017) Electrocatalytic oxidation of ethanol on the surface of the POAP/ phosphoric acid-doped ionic liquid-functionalized graphene oxide nanocomposite film. Iran J Catal 7:187–192Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Lyu Q, Yan H, Li L, Chen Z, Yao H, Nie Y (2017) Imidazolium ionic liquid modified graphene oxide: as a reinforcing filler and catalyst in epoxy resin. Polymers 9:447CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 166.
    Xing C, Tan R, Hao P, Gao M, Yin D, Yin D (2017) Graphene oxide supported chlorostannate (IV) ionic liquid: Brønsted–Lewis acidic combined catalyst for highly efficient Baeyer–Villiger oxidation in water. Mol Catal 433:37–47CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  167. 167.
    Zhang H, Zhang Q, Zhang L, Pei T, Dong L, Zhou P, Li C, Xia L (2018) Acidic polymeric ionic liquids based reduced graphene oxide: an efficient and rewriteable catalyst for oxidative desulfurization. Chem Eng J 334:285–295CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  168. 168.
    Shi X, Cai C (2018) Imidazolium-based ionic liquid functionalized reduced graphene oxide supported palladium as a reusable catalyst for Suzuki–Miyaura reactions. New J Chem 42:2364–2367CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Nakhate AV, Yadav GD (2018) Graphene-oxide-supported SO3H-functionalized imidazolium-based ionic liquid: efficient and recyclable heterogeneous catalyst for alcoholysis and aminolysis reactions. ChemistrySelect 3:4547–4556CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. 170.
    Lee J-Y, Liu L-K (2014) Graphite oxide functionalized with ionic liquid and ruthenium as hydrogenation catalyst. Int J Hydrogen Energy 39:17492–17500CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. 171.
    Mungse HP, Khatri OP (2014) Chemically functionalized reduced graphene oxide as a novel material for reduction of friction and wear. J Phys Chem C 118:14394–14402CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Fan X, Wang L, Li W (2015) In situ fabrication of low-friction sandwich sheets through functionalized graphene crosslinked by ionic liquids. Tribol Lett 58:12CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gusain R, Mungse HP, Kumar N, Ravindran T, Pandian R, Sugimura H, Khatri OP (2016) Covalently attached graphene–ionic liquid hybrid nanomaterials: synthesis, characterization and tribological application. J Mater Chem A 4:926–937CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 174.
    Mu L, Shi Y, Guo X, Zhuang W, Chen L, Ji T, Hua J, Wang H, Zhu J (2017) Grafting heteroelement-rich groups on graphene oxide: tuning polarity and molecular interaction with bio-ionic liquid for enhanced lubrication. J Colloid Interface Sci 498:47–54CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 175.
    Fan X, Wang L (2015) High-performance lubricant additives based on modified graphene oxide by ionic liquids. J Colloid Interface Sci 452:98–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  176. 176.
    Tang W, Huang Z, Wang B (2018) Synthesis of ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxides and their tribological property under water lubrication. Fuller Nanotub Carbon Nanostruct 26:175–183CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Khare V, Pham M-Q, Kumari N, Yoon H-S, Kim C-S, Park J-I, Ahn S-H (2013) Graphene–ionic liquid based hybrid nanomaterials as novel lubricant for low friction and wear. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 5:4063–4075CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  178. 178.
    McCrary PD, Beasley PA, Alaniz SA, Griggs CS, Frazier RM, Rogers RD (2012) Graphene and graphene oxide can “lubricate” ionic liquids based on specific surface interactions leading to improved low-temperature hypergolic performance. Angew Chem 124:9922–9925CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  179. 179.
    D’Agostino V, Pisaturo M, Cirillo C, Sarno M, Senatore A (2016) Tribological effectiveness of graphene oxide and ionic liquids in PAG oil: could absorbed water play beneficial role? Hidraulica 2:13Google Scholar
  180. 180.
    Chatzimitakos T, Stalikas C (2017) Carbon-based nanomaterials functionalized with ionic liquids for microextraction in sample preparation. Separations 4:14CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  181. 181.
    Huang Y, Wang Y, Wang Y, Pan Q, Ding X, Xu K, Li N, Wen Q (2016) Ionic liquid-coated Fe 3 O 4/APTES/graphene oxide nanocomposites: synthesis, characterization and evaluation in protein extraction processes. RSC Adv 6:5718–5728CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  182. 182.
    Kowsari E, Chirani MR (2017) High efficiency dye-sensitized solar cells with tetra alkyl ammonium cation-based ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide as a novel additive in nanocomposite electrolyte. Carbon 118:384–392CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. 183.
    Lin B, Feng T, Chu F, Zhang S, Yuan N, Qiao G, Ding J (2015) Poly (ionic liquid)/ionic liquid/graphene oxide composite quasi solid-state electrolytes for dye sensitized solar cells. RSC Adv 5:57216–57222CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. 184.
    Zarrin H, Sy S, Fu J, Jiang G, Kang K, Jun Y-S, Yu A, Fowler M, Chen Z (2016) Molecular functionalization of graphene oxide for next-generation wearable electronics. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 8:25428–25437CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. 185.
    Yin B, Zhang X, Zhang X, Wang J, Wen Y, Jia H, Ji Q, Ding L (2017) Ionic liquid functionalized graphene oxide for enhancement of styrene-butadiene rubber nanocomposites. Polym Adv Technol 28:293–302CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. 186.
    Mondal T, Basak S, Bhowmick AK (2017) Ionic liquid modification of graphene oxide and its role towards controlling the porosity, and mechanical robustness of polyurethane foam. Polymer 127:106–118CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. 187.
    Bag S, Samanta A, Bhunia P, Raj CR (2016) Rational functionalization of reduced graphene oxide with imidazolium-based ionic liquid for supercapacitor application. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:22134–22143CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 188.
    Shao Q, Tang J, Lin Y, Li J, Qin F, Zhang K, Yuan J, Qin L-C (2015) Ionic liquid modified graphene for supercapacitors with high rate capability. Electrochim Acta 176:1441–1446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 189.
    She Z, Ghosh D, Pope MA (2017) Decorating graphene oxide with ionic liquid nanodroplets: an approach leading to energy-dense, high-voltage supercapacitors. ACS Nano 11:10077–10087CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. 190.
    Pope MA, Korkut S, Punckt C, Aksay IA (2013) Supercapacitor electrodes produced through evaporative consolidation of graphene oxide-water-ionic liquid gels. J Electrochem Soc 160:A1653–A1660CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. 191.
    Shabeeba P, Thasneema K, Thayyil MS, Pillai M, Niveditha C (2017) A graphene-based flexible supercapacitor using trihexyl (tetradecyl) phosphonium bis (trifluoromethanesulfonyl) imide ionic liquid electrolyte. Mater Res Express 4:085501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 192.
    Li T, Li N, Liu J, Cai K, Foda MF, Lei X, Han H (2015) Synthesis of functionalized 3D porous graphene using both ionic liquid and SiO 2 spheres as “spacers” for high-performance application in supercapacitors. Nanoscale 7:659–669CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  193. 193.
    Sun Y, Fang Z, Wang C, Ariyawansha KRM, Zhou A, Duan H (2015) Sandwich-structured nanohybrid paper based on controllable growth of nanostructured MnO2 on ionic liquid functionalized graphene paper as a flexible supercapacitor electrode. Nanoscale 7:7790–7801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 194.
    Kim B, Cho W, Lee W, Kim S, Jalili R, Park S, Wallace GG, Yu K, Chang S-J (2014) Capacitive behaviour of thermally reduced graphene oxide in a novel ionic liquid containing di-cationic charge. Synth Met 193:110–116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Chemistry, School of Chemical and Physical Sciences, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesNorth-West UniversityMmabathoSouth Africa
  2. 2.Material Science Innovation and Modelling (MaSIM) Research Focus Area, Faculty of Natural and Agricultural SciencesNorth-West UniversityMmabathoSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations