The relationship between sleep duration, sleep quality and dietary intake in adults

  • Biriz Çakir
  • Fatma Nişancı Kılınç
  • Gizem Özata UyarEmail author
  • Çiler Özenir
  • Emine Merve Ekici
  • Eda Karaismailoğlu
Original Article


To determine the relationship of specific macro- and micro-nutrients and food groups with sleep duration and sleep quality in adults. This cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on 2446 adults aged between 20 and 64 years in Turkey. The participants’ socio-demographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, and dietary intake (24-h recall) were taken. The Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index was used to assess sleep quality. In the study, 48.9% of the participants were male and 51.1% were female, with an average age of 38.7 ± 12.70 years. Total protein, meat, and processed meat product consumption rates of long sleepers were found to be lower than those of normal sleepers (p < 0.05). Saturated fat intake of short sleepers was higher than that of long sleepers (p < 0.018). Participants with good sleep quality were found to consume higher carbohydrate, fiber, beta-carotene, vitamin E, thiamine, vitamin B6, total folate, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, and iron compared to those with poor sleep quality (p < 0.05). When examined in terms of food groups, fruit consumption was higher in individuals with good sleep quality compared to those with poor sleep quality (p < 0.05). In this study, some macro- and micro-nutrients of the diet were found correlated with sleep duration and quality. Mechanisms mediating the relationship between sleep duration and dietary intake are multi-factorial. Because of the differences in appetite-related hormones, such as leptin and ghrelin, and hedonic factors, future studies will benefit from assessing sleep duration/quality and dietary intake.


Sleep quality Sleep duration Dietary nutrients Food groups Anthropometric measurements 



We would like to thank all the participants in the trial for their enthusiastic and maintained collaboration.


This research did not receive any specific grant from funding agencies in the industry, commercial, or not-for-profit sectors.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Japanese Society of Sleep Research 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health ScienceKırıkkale UniversityKırıkkaleTurkey
  2. 2.Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Faculty of Health ScienceGazi UniversityAnkaraTurkey
  3. 3.Department of Bioistatistics, Faculty of MedicineKastamonu UniversityKastamonuTurkey

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