Experimental and numerical analysis of large-scale bamboo-reinforced concrete beams containing crushed sand

  • P. O. AwoyeraEmail author
  • S. Karthik
  • P. R. M. Rao
  • R. Gobinath
Technical Paper


Of many fast growing grasses around the world, bamboo has been persistently investigated as a possible reinforcing element in concrete. In addition to the existing knowledge on the subject, this study has performed an experimental and numerical analysis of flexural behaviour of large-scale bamboo-reinforced concrete beams containing crushed sand. The crushed sand was used as complete replacement of natural river sand at 0 and 100%, while bamboo was substituted for steel reinforcement bars at 50 and 100%. Other concrete ingredients cement, granite, and mixing water were kept constant. Curing of hardened beams was by immersion in water for 28, 56, and 84 days’ regimes. Finite element/numerical modelling and analysis of beams was performed using ABAQUS software. A nonlinear model analysis with static loading was considered with a predefined 3D model. The concrete fracture pattern was smeared crack, in the mode I. The results showed that a partial (50%) or total (100%) replacement of steel with bamboo and total replacement of natural river sand with crushed sand gave somewhat similar performance in flexure as the control beams. As expected, steel-reinforced beams were better in terms of strength across all curing regimes; however, members reinforced with 50% bamboo, although with about 14% lesser strength but having minimal deformation and crack propagation, can also be a sustainable alternative for construction. Overall, the results somewhat validate the obtained experimental flexural strength of the beams.


Reinforced concrete Steel reinforcement Bamboo Flexural properties Crack propagation 



This research was fully supported by the VIT University, Vellore, India.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest



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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Civil EngineeringCovenant UniversityOtaNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Civil EngineeringVIT UniversityVelloreIndia
  3. 3.SR Engineering CollegeWarangalIndia

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