Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Limitations and Prospects for Wastewater Treatment by UV and Visible-Light-Active Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: A Critical Review

Abstract

Heterogeneous photocatalysis (HPC) has been widely investigated in recent decades for the removal of a number of contaminants from aqueous matrices, but its application in real wastewater treatment at full scale is still scarce. Indeed, process and technological limitations have made HPC uncompetitive with respect to consolidated processes/technologies so far. In this manuscript, these issues are critically discussed and reviewed with the aim of providing the reader with a realistic picture of the prospective application of HPC in wastewater treatment. Accordingly, consolidated and new photocatalysts (among which the visible active ones are attracting increasing interest among the scientific community), along with preparation methods, are reviewed to understand whether, with increased process efficiency, these methods can be realistically and competitively developed at industrial scale. Precipitation is considered as an attractive method for photocatalyst preparation at the industrial scale; sol–gel and ultrasound may be feasible only if no expensive metal precursor is used, while hydrothermal and solution combustion synthesis are expected to be difficult (expensive) to scale up. The application of HPC in urban and industrial wastewater treatment and possible energy recovery by hydrogen production are discussed in terms of current limitations and future prospects. Despite the fact that HPC has been studied for the removal of pollutants in aqueous matrices for two decades, its use in wastewater treatment is still at a “technological research” stage. In order to accelerate the adoption of HPC at full scale, it is advisable to focus on investigations under real conditions and on developing/improving pilot-scale reactors to better investigate scale-up conditions and the potential to successfully address specific challenges in wastewater treatment through HPC. In realistic terms, the prospective use of HPC is more likely as a tertiary treatment of wastewater, particularly if more stringent regulations come into force, than as pretreatment for industrial wastewater to improve biodegradability.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2

(Adapted from [62])

Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8

References

  1. 1.

    Esplugas S, Gimenez J Contreras S, Pascual E, Rodrı́guez M (2002) Comparison of different advanced oxidation processes for phenol degradation. Water Res 36:1034–1042

  2. 2.

    Bhatkhande DS, Pangarkar VG, Beenackers AACM (2002) Photocatalytic degradation for environmental applications–a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol Int Res Process Environ Clean Technol 77:102–116

  3. 3.

    Ohno T, Sarukawa K, Tokieda K, Matsumura M (2001) Morphology of a TiO2 photocatalyst (Degussa, P-25) consisting of anatase and rutile crystalline phases. J Catal 203:82–86

  4. 4.

    Bekbölet M, Boyacioglu Z, Özkaraova B (1998) The influence of solution matrix on the photocatalytic removal of color from natural waters. Water Sci Technol 38:155–162

  5. 5.

    Zammit I, Vaiano V, Ribeiro AR, Silva AM, Manaia CM, Rizzo L (2019) Photocatalyst for the degradation of antibiotics and the inactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Catalysts 9:222

  6. 6.

    Zhang H, Lv X, Li Y, Wang Y, Li J (2009) P25-graphene composite as a high performance photocatalyst. ACS Nano 4:380–386

  7. 7.

    Yang L, Liu B, Liu T, Ma X, Li H, Yin S, Sato T, Wang Y (2017) A P25/(NH4) x WO3 hybrid photocatalyst with broad spectrum photocatalytic properties under UV, visible, and near-infrared irradiation. Sci Rep 7:45715

  8. 8.

    Hashimoto K, Irie H, Fujishima A (2005) TiO2 photocatalysis: a historical overview and future prospects. Jpn J Appl Phys 44:8269–8285

  9. 9.

    Vaiano V, Iervolino G, Rizzo L (2018) Cu-doped ZnO as efficient photocatalyst for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate under visible light. Appl Catal B 238:471–479

  10. 10.

    Su H, Jing L, Shi K, Yao C, Fu H (2010) Synthesis of large surface area LaFeO3 nanoparticles by SBA-16 template method as high active visible photocatalysts. J Nanopart Res 12:967–974

  11. 11.

    Iervolino G, Vaiano V, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Ciambelli P (2016) Production of hydrogen from glucose by LaFeO3 based photocatalytic process during water treatment. Int J Hydrogen Energy 41:959–966

  12. 12.

    Li S, Jing L, Fu W, Yang L, Xin B, Fu H (2007) Photoinduced charge property of nanosized perovskite-type LaFeO3 and its relationships with photocatalytic activity under visible irradiation. Mater Res Bull 42:203–212

  13. 13.

    Huang L, Fu W, Fu X, Zong B, Liu H, Bala H et al (2017) Facile and large-scale preparation of N doped TiO2 photocatalyst with high visible light photocatalytic activity. Mater Lett 209:585–588

  14. 14.

    Lee D-K, Kim S-C, Cho I-C, Kim S-J, Kim S-W (2004) Photocatalytic oxidation of microcystin-LR in a fluidized bed reactor having TiO2-coated activated carbon. Sep Purif Technol 34:59–66

  15. 15.

    Chong MN, Vimonses V, Lei S, Jin B, Chow C, Saint C (2009) Synthesis and characterisation of novel titania impregnated kaolinite nano-photocatalyst. Microporous Mesoporous Mater 117:233–242

  16. 16.

    Argurio P, Fontananova E, Molinari R, Drioli E (2018) Photocatalytic membranes in photocatalytic membrane reactors. Processes 6:162–189

  17. 17.

    Zhu H, Gao X, Lan Y, Song D, Xi Y, Zhao J (2004) Hydrogen titanate nanofibers covered with anatase nanocrystals: a delicate structure achieved by the wet chemistry reaction of the titanate nanofibers. J Am Chem Soc 126:8380–8381

  18. 18.

    Hatat-Fraile M, Liang R, Arlos MJ, He RX, Peng P, Servos MR et al (2017) Concurrent photocatalytic and filtration processes using doped TiO2 coated quartz fiber membranes in a photocatalytic membrane reactor. Chem Eng J 330:531–540

  19. 19.

    Kwak S-Y, Kim SH, Kim SS (2001) Hybrid organic/inorganic reverse osmosis (RO) membrane for bactericidal anti-fouling. 1. Preparation and characterization of TiO2 nanoparticle self-assembled aromatic polyamide thin-film-composite (TFC) membrane. Environ Sci Technol 35:2388–2394

  20. 20.

    Dzinun H, Othman MHD, Ismail AF, Puteh MH, Rahman MA, Jaafar J (2015) Photocatalytic degradation of nonylphenol by immobilized TiO2 in dual layer hollow fibre membranes. Chem Eng J 269:255–261

  21. 21.

    Cantarella M, Sanz R, Buccheri MA, Ruffino F, Rappazzo G, Scalese S et al (2016) Immobilization of nanomaterials in PMMA composites for photocatalytic removal of dyes, phenols and bacteria from water. J Photochem Photobiol A 321:1–11

  22. 22.

    Chen C-Y, Wang M, Li J-Y, Pootrakulchote N, Alibabaei L, Ngoc-le C-h et al (2009) Highly efficient light-harvesting ruthenium sensitizer for thin-film dyesensitized solar cells. ACS nano 3:3103–3109

  23. 23.

    Chen Z, Li F, Huang C (2007) Organic D-π-A dyes for dye-sensitized solar cell. Curr Org Chem 11:1241–1258

  24. 24.

    Ito S, Miura H, Uchida S, Takata M, Sumioka K, Liska P et al (2008) High-conversion-efficiency organic dye-sensitized solar cells with a novel indoline dye. Chem Commun 44(41):5194–5196

  25. 25.

    Zhang Z, Wang W, Wang L, Sun S (2012) Enhancement of visible-light photocatalysis by coupling with narrow-band-gap semiconductor: a case study on Bi2S3/Bi2WO6. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 4:593–597

  26. 26.

    Vaiano V, Iervolino G, Sannino D (2016) Photocatalytic Removal of Tartrazine Dye from Aqueous Samples on LaFeO3/ZnO Photocatalysts. Chem Eng Trans 52:847–852

  27. 27.

    Abe R, Sayama K, Arakawa H (2002) Efficient hydrogen evolution from aqueous mixture of I and acetonitrile using a merocyanine dye-sensitized Pt/TiO2 photocatalyst under visible light irradiation. Chem Phys Lett 362:441–444

  28. 28.

    Boschloo G, Hagfeldt A (2005) Activation energy of electron transport in dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells. J Phys Chem B 109:12093–12098

  29. 29.

    Tae EL, Lee SH, Lee JK, Yoo SS, Kang EJ, Yoon KB (2005) A strategy to increase the efficiency of the dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells operated by photoexcitation of dye-to-TiO2 charge-transfer bands. J Phys Chem B 109:22513–22522

  30. 30.

    Pearton SJ, Norton DP, Ivill MP, Hebard AF, Zavada JM, Chen WM et al (2007) ZnO Doped With Transition Metal Ions. IEEE Trans Electron Devices 54:1040–1048

  31. 31.

    Iervolino G, Vaiano V, Rizzo L (2018) Visible light active Fe-doped TiO2 for the oxidation of arsenite to arsenate in drinking water. Chem Eng Trans 70:1573–1578

  32. 32.

    Akpan UG, Hameed BH (2010) The advancements in sol–gel method of doped-TiO2 photocatalysts. Appl Catal A 375:1–11

  33. 33.

    Hoffmann MR, Martin ST, Choi W, Bahnemann DW (1995) Environmental applications of semiconductor photocatalysis. Chem Rev 95:69–96

  34. 34.

    Anpo M, Takeuchi M (2003) The design and development of highly reactive titanium oxide photocatalysts operating under visible light irradiation. J Catal 216:505–516

  35. 35.

    Alshammari AS, Chi L, Chen X, Bagabas A, Kramer D, Alromaeh A et al (2015) Visible-light photocatalysis on C-doped ZnO derived from polymer-assisted pyrolysis. RSC Advances. 5:27690–27698

  36. 36.

    Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2016) N-doped ZnO nanoparticles supported on ZnS based blue phosphors in the photocatalytic removal of eriochrome black-T dye. Chem Eng Trans 47:187–192

  37. 37.

    Thompson TL, Yates JT (2006) Surface science studies of the photoactivation of TiO2 new photochemical processes. Chem Rev 106:4428–4453

  38. 38.

    Di Valentin C, Pacchioni G, Selloni A, Livraghi S, Giamello E (2005) Characterization of paramagnetic species in N-doped TiO2 powders by EPR spectroscopy and DFT calculations. J Phys Chem B 109:11414–11419

  39. 39.

    Gombac V, De Rogatis L, Gasparotto A, Vicario G, Montini T, Barreca D et al (2007) TiO2 nanopowders doped with boron and nitrogen for photocatalytic applications. Chem Phys 339:111–123

  40. 40.

    Zhang X, Liu Q (2008) Preparation and characterization of titania photocatalyst co-doped with boron, nickel, and cerium. Mater Lett 62:2589–2592

  41. 41.

    Huang D-G, Liao S-J, Liu J-M, Dang Z, Petrik L (2006) Preparation of visible-light responsive N-F-codoped TiO2 photocatalyst by a sol–gel-solvothermal method. J Photochem Photobiol A 184:282–288

  42. 42.

    Srinivasan SS, Wade J, Stefanakos EK, Goswami Y (2006) Synergistic effects of sulfation and co-doping on the visible light photocatalysis of TiO2. J Alloy Compd 424:322–326

  43. 43.

    Wilke K, Breuer H (1999) The influence of transition metal doping on the physical and photocatalytic properties of titania. J Photochem Photobiol A 121:49–53

  44. 44.

    Macías-Sánchez J, Hinojosa-Reyes L, Caballero-Quintero Ad, De La Cruz W, Ruiz-Ruiz E, Hernández-Ramírez A et al (2015) Synthesis of nitrogen-doped ZnO by sol–gel method: characterization and its application on visible photocatalytic degradation of 2, 4-D and picloram herbicides. Photochem Photobiol Sci 14:536–542

  45. 45.

    Pal M, Bera S, Sarkar S, Jana S (2014) Influence of Al doping on microstructural, optical and photocatalytic properties of sol–gel based nanostructured zinc oxide films on glass. Rsc Advances 4:11552–11563

  46. 46.

    Thongsuriwong K, Amornpitoksuk P, Suwanboon S (2012) Photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of Ag-doped ZnO thin films prepared by a sol–gel dip-coating method. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 62:304–312

  47. 47.

    Fu M, Li Y, Lu P, Liu J, Dong F (2011) Sol–gel preparation and enhanced photocatalytic performance of Cu-doped ZnO nanoparticles. Appl Surf Sci 258:1587–1591

  48. 48.

    Lima MK, Fernandes DM, Silva MF, Baesso ML, Neto AM, de Morais GR et al (2014) Co-doped ZnO nanoparticles synthesized by an adapted sol–gel method: effects on the structural, optical, photocatalytic and antibacterial properties. J Sol-Gel Sci Technol 72:301–309

  49. 49.

    Gionco C, Paganini MC, Giamello E, Burgess R, Di Valentin C, Pacchioni G (2014) Cerium-doped zirconium dioxide, a visible-light-sensitive photoactive material of third generation. J Phys Chem Lett 5:447–451

  50. 50.

    Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2015) Nanostructured N-doped TiO2 coated on glass spheres for the photocatalytic removal of organic dyes under UV or visible light irradiation. Appl Catal B 170–171:153–161

  51. 51.

    Sōmiya S, Roy R (2000) Hydrothermal synthesis of fine oxide powders. Bull Mater Sci 23:453–460

  52. 52.

    Einarsrud M-A, Grande T (2014) 1D oxide nanostructures from chemical solutions. Chem Soc Rev 43:2187–2199

  53. 53.

    Anpo M, Kamat PV (2010) Environmentally benign photocatalysts: applications of titanium oxide-based materials, Chap 1. Springer Science & Business Media

  54. 54.

    Zhou JK, Lv L, Yu J, Li HL, Guo P-Z, Sun H et al (2008) Synthesis of self-organized polycrystalline F-doped TiO2 hollow microspheres and their photocatalytic activity under visible light. J Phys Chem C 112:5316–5321

  55. 55.

    Regalbuto J (2016) Catalyst preparation: science and engineering, Chap 8. CRC press

  56. 56.

    Nejati K, Rezvani Z, Pakizevand R (2011) Synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles and investigation of the ionic template effect on their size and shape. Int Nano Lett 1:75–81

  57. 57.

    Vaiano V, Sacco O, Sannino D, Ciambelli P (2015) Process intensification in the removal of organic pollutants from wastewater using innovative photocatalysts obtained coupling Zinc Sulfide based phosphors with nitrogen doped semiconductors. J Clean Prod 100:208–211

  58. 58.

    Mittal M, Sharma M, Pandey O (2014) UV–Visible light induced photocatalytic studies of Cu doped ZnO nanoparticles prepared by co-precipitation method. Sol Energy 110:386–397

  59. 59.

    Amornpitoksuk P, Suwanboon S, Sangkanu S, Sukhoom A, Muensit N, Baltrusaitis J (2012) Synthesis, characterization, photocatalytic and antibacterial activities of Ag-doped ZnO powders modified with a diblock copolymer. Powder Technol 219:158–164

  60. 60.

    Zhang Y, Stangle GC (1994) Preparation of fine multicomponent oxide ceramic powder by a combustion synthesis process. J Mater Res 9:1997–2004

  61. 61.

    Manoharan SS, Kumar N, Patil K (1990) Preparation of fine particle chromites: a combustion approach. Mater Res Bull 25:731–738

  62. 62.

    Deganello F, Tyagi AK (2018) Solution combustion synthesis, energy and environment: Best parameters for better materials. Prog Cryst Growth Charact Mater 64:23–61

  63. 63.

    Danks AE, Hall SR, Schnepp Z (2016) The evolution of ‘sol–gel’ chemistry as a technique for materials synthesis. Mater Horiz 3:91–112

  64. 64.

    Peng K, Fu L, Yang H, Ouyang J (2016) Perovskite LaFeO3/montmorillonite nanocomposites: synthesis, interface characteristics and enhanced photocatalytic activity. Sci Rep 6:19723–19733

  65. 65.

    Parida K, Reddy K, Martha S, Das D, Biswal N (2010) Fabrication of nanocrystalline LaFeO3: an efficient sol–gel auto-combustion assisted visible light responsive photocatalyst for water decomposition. Int J Hydrogen Energy 35:12161–12168

  66. 66.

    Sannino D, Vaiano V, Ciambelli P, Isupova LA (2011) Structured catalysts for photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid. Catal Today 161:255–259

  67. 67.

    Vaiano V, Iervolino G, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Sarno G, Ciambelli P et al (2015) Food Azo-Dyes removal from water by heterogeneous photo-fenton with LaFeO3 supported on honeycomb corundum monoliths. J Environ Eng 141(12):04015038

  68. 68.

    Sannino D, Vaiano V, Ciambelli P, Isupova L (2013) Mathematical modelling of the heterogeneous photo-Fenton oxidation of acetic acid on structured catalysts. Chem Eng J 224:53–58

  69. 69.

    Suslick KS, Price GJ (1999) Applications of ultrasound to materials chemistry. Annu Rev Mater Sci 29:295–326

  70. 70.

    Xu H, Zeiger BW, Suslick KS (2013) Sonochemical synthesis of nanomaterials. Chem Soc Rev 42:2555–2567

  71. 71.

    Teh CY, Wu TY, Juan JC (2017) An application of ultrasound technology in synthesis of titania-based photocatalyst for degrading pollutant. Chem Eng J 317:586–612

  72. 72.

    Moholkar VS, Sivasankar T, Nalajala VS (2012) 20 Mechanistic aspects of ultrasound-enhanced physical and chemical processes. In: Handbook on applications of, pp 501–531

  73. 73.

    Sancheti SV, Gogate PR (2017) A review of engineering aspects of intensification of chemical synthesis using ultrasound. Ultrason Sonochem 36:527–543

  74. 74.

    Huang W, Tang X, Wang Y, Koltypin Y, Gedanken A (2000) Selective synthesis of anatase and rutile via ultrasound irradiation. Chem Commun 15(15):1415–1416

  75. 75.

    Jimmy CY, Zhang L, Yu J (2002) Rapid synthesis of mesoporous TiO2 with high photocatalytic activity by ultrasound-induced agglomeration. New J Chem 26:416–420

  76. 76.

    Boels L, Wagterveld R, Mayer M, Witkamp G (2010) Seeded calcite sonocrystallization. J Cryst Growth 312:961–966

  77. 77.

    Tian C, Zhang Q, Wu A, Jiang M, Liang Z, Jiang B et al (2012) Cost-effective large-scale synthesis of ZnO photocatalyst with excellent performance for dye photodegradation. Chem Commun 48:2858–2860

  78. 78.

    Thiagarajan S, Sanmugam A, Vikraman D (2017) Facile methodology of Sol-Gel synthesis for metal oxide nanostructures. In: Recent applications in sol–gel synthesis, Chap 1, IntechOpen

  79. 79.

    Macwan D, Dave PN, Chaturvedi S (2011) A review on nano-TiO2 sol–gel type syntheses and its applications. J Mater Sci 46:3669–3686

  80. 80.

    Lin K, Wu C, Chang J (2014) Advances in synthesis of calcium phosphate crystals with controlled size and shape. Acta Biomater 10:4071–4102

  81. 81.

    O’Donoghue M (1983) A guide to man-made gemstones. Van Nostrand Reinhold Company

  82. 82.

    Khalil I, Julkapli N, Yehye W, Basirun W, Bhargava S (2016) Graphene–gold nanoparticles hybrid—synthesis, functionalization, and application in a electrochemical and surface-enhanced raman scattering biosensor. Materials 9:406–444

  83. 83.

    Varma A, Mukasyan AS, Rogachev AS, Manukyan KV (2016) Solution combustion synthesis of nanoscale materials. Chem Rev 116:14493–14586

  84. 84.

    Aghayan M, Rodríguez M (2012) Influence of fuels and combustion aids on solution combustion synthesis of bi-phasic calcium phosphates (BCP). Mater Sci Eng C 32:2464–2468

  85. 85.

    Bang JH, Suslick KS (2010) Applications of ultrasound to the synthesis of nanostructured materials. Adv Mater 22:1039–1059

  86. 86.

    Loeb SK, Alvarez PJ, Brame JA, Cates EL, Choi W, Crittenden J et al (2019) The technology horizon for photocatalytic water treatment: sunrise or sunset? : ACS Publications. Environ Sci Technol 53:2937–2947

  87. 87.

    Liao C-H, Gurol MD (1995) Chemical oxidation by photolytic decomposition of hydrogen peroxide. Environ Sci Technol 29:3007–3014

  88. 88.

    Fiorentino A, Ferro G, Alferez MC, Polo-López MI, Fernández-Ibañez P, Rizzo L (2015) Inactivation and regrowth of multidrug resistant bacteria in urban wastewater after disinfection by solar-driven and chlorination processes. J Photochem Photobiol B 148:43–50

  89. 89.

    Rizzo L, Lofrano G, Grassi M, Belgiorno V (2008) Pre-treatment of olive mill wastewater by chitosan coagulation and advanced oxidation processes. Sep Purif Technol 63:648–653

  90. 90.

    Haroune L, Salaun M, Ménard A, Legault CY, Bellenger J-P (2014) Photocatalytic degradation of carbamazepine and three derivatives using TiO2 and ZnO: Effect of pH, ionic strength, and natural organic matter. Sci Total Environ 475:16–22

  91. 91.

    Qin G, Sun Z, Wu Q, Lin L, Liang M, Xue S (2011) Dye-sensitized TiO2 film with bifunctionalized zones for photocatalytic degradation of 4-cholophenol. J Hazard Mater 192:599–604

  92. 92.

    Adán C, Magnet A, Fenoy S, Pablos C, Del Águila C, Marugán J (2018) Concomitant inactivation of Acanthamoeba spp. and Escherichia coli using suspended and immobilized TiO2. Water Res 144:512–521

  93. 93.

    Lalhriatpuia C, Tiwari D, Tiwari A, Lee SM (2015) Immobilized Nanopillars-TiO2 in the efficient removal of micro-pollutants from aqueous solutions: physicochemical studies. Chem Eng J 281:782–792

  94. 94.

    Xiong P, Hu J (2013) Inactivation/reactivation of antibiotic-resistant bacteria by a novel UVA/LED/TiO2 system. Water Res 47:4547–4555

  95. 95.

    Coronado JM, Fresno F, Hernández-Alonso MD, Portela R (2013) Design of advanced photocatalytic materials for energy and environmental applications, Springer, pp 123–156

  96. 96.

    Yu H, Song L, Hao Y, Lu N, Quan X, Chen S et al (2016) Fabrication of pilot-scale photocatalytic disinfection device by installing TiO2 coated helical support into UV annular reactor for strengthening sterilization. Chem Eng J 283:1506–1513

  97. 97.

    Borges M, Sierra M, Esparza P (2017) Solar photocatalysis at semi-pilot scale: wastewater decontamination in a packed-bed photocatalytic reactor system with a visible-solar-light-driven photocatalyst. Clean Technol Environ Policy 19:1239–1245

  98. 98.

    Antonelli M, Turolla A, Mezzanotte V, Nurizzo C (2013) Peracetic acid for secondary effluent disinfection: a comprehensive performance assessment. Water Sci Technol 68:2638–2644

  99. 99.

    Da Costa JB, Rodgher S, Daniel LA, Espíndola ELG (2014) Toxicity on aquatic organisms exposed to secondary effluent disinfected with chlorine, peracetic acid, ozone and UV radiation. Ecotoxicology 23:1803–1813

  100. 100.

    Di Cesare A, Eckert EM, D’Urso S, Bertoni R, Gillan DC, Wattiez R et al (2016) Co-occurrence of integrase 1, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes in municipal wastewater treatment plants. Water Res 94:208–214

  101. 101.

    McArdell C (2015) The first full-scale advanced ozonation plant in the Dübendorf WWTP running; the new Swiss water protection act approved. Norman Bulletin 4:36–37

  102. 102.

    Rizzo L, Malato S, Antakyali D, Beretsou VG, Đolić MB, Gernjak W et al (2019) Consolidated vs new advanced treatment methods for the removal of contaminants of emerging concern from urban wastewater. Sci Total Environ 655:986–1008

  103. 103.

    Vaiano V, Matarangolo M, Sacco O, Sannino D (2017) Photocatalytic treatment of aqueous solutions at high dye concentration using praseodymium-doped ZnO catalysts. Appl Catal B 209:621–630

  104. 104.

    .Konstantinou I, Albanis T (2004) TiO2-Assisted photocatalytic degradation of azo dyes in aqueous solution: kinetic and mechanistic investigations: a review 49:1-14

  105. 105.

    Chiang L-F, Doong R-A (2014) Cu-TiO2 nanorods with enhanced ultraviolet- and visible-light photoactivity for bisphenol A degradation. J Hazard Mater 277:84–92

  106. 106.

    Calza P, Sakkas VA, Medana C, Baiocchi C, Dimou A, Pelizzetti E et al (2006) Photocatalytic degradation study of diclofenac over aqueous TiO2 suspensions. Appl Catal B 67:197–205

  107. 107.

    Reyes C, Fernández J, Freer J, Mondaca MA, Zaror C, Malato S et al (2006) Degradation and inactivation of tetracycline by TiO2 photocatalysis. J Photochem Photobiol, A 184:141–146

  108. 108.

    Elmolla ES, Chaudhuri M (2010) Degradation of amoxicillin, ampicillin and cloxacillin antibiotics in aqueous solution by the UV/ZnO photocatalytic process. J Hazard Mater 173:445–449

  109. 109.

    Mijin D, Savić M, Snežana P, Smiljanić A, Glavaški O, Jovanović M et al (2009) A study of the photocatalytic degradation of metamitron in ZnO water suspensions. Desalination 249:286–292

  110. 110.

    Ahmed S, Rasul MG, Brown R, Hashib MA (2011) Influence of parameters on the heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of pesticides and phenolic contaminants in wastewater: A short review. J Environ Manage 92:311–330

  111. 111.

    Rizzo L, Della Sala A, Fiorentino A, Li Puma G (2014) Disinfection of urban wastewater by solar driven and UV lamp – TiO2 photocatalysis: effect on a multi drug resistant Escherichia coli strain. Water Res 53:145–152

  112. 112.

    Wang W, Huang G, Yu JC, Wong PK (2015) Advances in photocatalytic disinfection of bacteria: development of photocatalysts and mechanisms. J Environ Sci 34:232–247

  113. 113.

    Choi J, Lee H, Choi Y, Kim S, Lee S, Lee S et al (2014) Heterogeneous photocatalytic treatment of pharmaceutical micropollutants: effects of wastewater effluent matrix and catalyst modifications. Appl Catal B 147:8–16

  114. 114.

    Buxton GV, Greenstock CL, Helman WP, Ross AB (1988) Critical review of rate constants for reactions of hydrated electrons, hydrogen atoms and hydroxyl radicals (·OH/·O-) in aqueous solution. J Phys Chem Ref Data 17:513–886

  115. 115.

    Luo X, Yang X, Qiao X, Wang Y, Chen J, Wei X et al (2017) Development of a QSAR model for predicting aqueous reaction rate constants of organic chemicals with hydroxyl radicals. Environmental Science: Processes & Impacts. 19:350–356

  116. 116.

    Jallouli N, Pastrana Martinez L, Ribeiro A, Moreira N, L Faria J, Hentati O, et al (2018) Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of ibuprofen in ultrapure water, municipal and pharmaceutical industry wastewaters using a TiO2/UV-LED system. 334:976–984

  117. 117.

    Wilson WW, Wade MM, Holman SC, Champlin FR (2001) Status of methods for assessing bacterial cell surface charge properties based on zeta potential measurements. J Microbiol Methods 43:153–164

  118. 118.

    Gottenbos B, Grijpma DW, van der Mei HC, Feijen J, Busscher HJ (2001) Antimicrobial effects of positively charged surfaces on adhering Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. J Antimicrob Chemother 48:7–13

  119. 119.

    Coleman HM, Marquis CP, Scott JA, Chin SS, Amal R (2005) Bactericidal effects of titanium dioxide-based photocatalysts. Chem Eng J 113:55–63

  120. 120.

    Thomas O, Causse J, Thomas M-F (2017) Aggregate organic constituents. Chap 4

  121. 121.

    Fiorentino A, Esteban B, Garrido-Cardenas JA, Kowalska K, Rizzo L, Aguera A et al (2019) Effect of solar photo-Fenton process in raceway pond reactors at neutral pH on antibiotic resistance determinants in secondary treated urban wastewater. J Hazard Mater 378:120737–120746

  122. 122.

    McCullagh C, Skillen N, Adams M, Robertson PKJ (2011) Photocatalytic reactors for environmental remediation: a review. J Chem Technol Biotechnol 86:1002–1017

  123. 123.

    Braham RJ, Harris AT (2009) Review of major design and scale-up considerations for solar photocatalytic reactors. Ind Eng Chem Res 48:8890–8905

  124. 124.

    Paltiel O, Fedorova G, Tadmor G, Kleinstern G, Maor Y, Chefetz B (2016) Human exposure to wastewater-derived pharmaceuticals in fresh produce: a randomized controlled trial focusing on carbamazepine. Environ Sci Technol 50:4476–4482

  125. 125.

    Alexander J, Knopp G, Dötsch A, Wieland A, Schwartz T (2016) Ozone treatment of conditioned wastewater selects antibiotic resistance genes, opportunistic bacteria, and induce strong population shifts. Sci Total Environ 559:103–112

  126. 126.

    Liu S-S, Qu H-M, Yang D, Hu H, Liu W-L, Qiu Z-G et al (2018) Chlorine disinfection increases both intracellular and extracellular antibiotic resistance genes in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. Water Res 136:131–136

  127. 127.

    Murray GE, Tobin RS, Junkins B, Kushner DJ (1984) Effect of chlorination on antibiotic resistance profiles of sewage-related bacteria. Appl Environ Microbiol 48:73–77

  128. 128.

    Zheng J, Su C, Zhou J, Xu L, Qian Y, Chen H (2017) Effects and mechanisms of ultraviolet, chlorination, and ozone disinfection on antibiotic resistance genes in secondary effluents of municipal wastewater treatment plants. Chem Eng J 317:309–316

  129. 129.

    Karaolia P, Michael-Kordatou I, Hapeshi E, Drosou C, Bertakis Y, Christofilos D et al (2018) Removal of antibiotics, antibiotic-resistant bacteria and their associated genes by graphene-based TiO2 composite photocatalysts under solar radiation in urban wastewaters. Appl Catal B 224:810–824

  130. 130.

    Moreira NFF, Sousa JM, Macedo G, Ribeiro AR, Barreiros L, Pedrosa M et al (2016) Photocatalytic ozonation of urban wastewater and surface water using immobilized TiO2 with LEDs: Micropollutants, antibiotic resistance genes and estrogenic activity. Water Res 94:10–22

  131. 131.

    Amiri H, Nabizadeh R, Silva Martinez S, Jamaleddin Shahtaheri S, Yaghmaeian K, Badiei A et al (2018) Response surface methodology modeling to improve degradation of Chlorpyrifos in agriculture runoff using TiO2 solar photocatalytic in a raceway pond reactor. Ecotoxicol Environ Saf 147:919–925

  132. 132.

    Carra I, Santos-Juanes L, Acién Fernández FG, Malato S, Sánchez Pérez JA. New approach to solar photo-Fenton operation. Raceway ponds as tertiary treatment technology. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 2014;279:322-9.

  133. 133.

    Mehrjouei M, Müller S, Möller D (2015) A review on photocatalytic ozonation used for the treatment of water and wastewater. Chem Eng J 263:209–219

  134. 134.

    Cho M, Gandhi V, Hwang T-M, Lee S, Kim J-H (2011) Investigating synergism during sequential inactivation of MS-2 phage and Bacillus subtilis spores with UV/H2O2 followed by free chlorine. Water Res 45:1063–1070

  135. 135.

    Bandala ER, González L, Sanchez-Salas JL, Castillo JH (2011) Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in water using sequential solar driven photo-Fenton and free chlorine. J Water Health 10:20–30

  136. 136.

    Meng X, Zhang Z (2018) Two dimensional graphitic materials for photoelectrocatalysis: a short review. Catal Today 315:2–8

  137. 137.

    Li X, Yu J, Wageh S, Al-Ghamdi AA, Xie J (2016) Graphene in photocatalysis: a review. Small 12:6640–6696

  138. 138.

    Georgieva J, Valova E, Armyanov S, Philippidis N, Poulios I, Sotiropoulos S (2012) Bi-component semiconductor oxide photoanodes for the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of organic solutes and vapours: a short review with emphasis to TiO2–WO3 photoanodes. J Hazard Mater 211:30–46

  139. 139.

    Yang M-Q, Zhang N, Pagliaro M, Xu Y-J (2014) Artificial photosynthesis over graphene–semiconductor composites. Are we getting better? Chem Soc Rev 43:8240–8254

  140. 140.

    Kakaei K (2013) One-pot electrochemical synthesis of graphene by the exfoliation of graphite powder in sodium dodecyl sulfate and its decoration with platinum nanoparticles for methanol oxidation. Carbon 51:195–201

  141. 141.

    Liu C, Zhang L, Liu R, Gao Z, Yang X, Tu Z et al (2016) Hydrothermal synthesis of N-doped TiO2 nanowires and N-doped graphene heterostructures with enhanced photocatalytic properties. J Alloy Compd 656:24–32

  142. 142.

    Jin Z, Zhang Q, Yuan S, Ohno T (2015) Synthesis high specific surface area nanotube gC3N4 with two-step condensation treatment of melamine to enhance photocatalysis properties. RSC Adv 5:4026–4029

  143. 143.

    Ozer LY, Garlisi C, Oladipo H, Pagliaro M, Sharief SA, Yusuf A et al (2017) Inorganic semiconductors-graphene composites in photo (electro) catalysis: synthetic strategies, interaction mechanisms and applications. J Photochem Photobiol C 33:132–164

  144. 144.

    Wang G, Feng W, Zeng X, Wang Z, Feng C, McCarthy DT et al (2016) Highly recoverable TiO2–GO nanocomposites for stormwater disinfection. Water Res 94:363–370

  145. 145.

    Garcia DT, Ozer LY, Parrino F, Ahmed M, Brudecki GP, Hasan SW et al (2018) Photocatalytic ozonation under visible light for the remediation of water effluents and its integration with an electro-membrane bioreactor. Chemosphere 209:534–541

  146. 146.

    Sanchez M, Rivero M, Ortiz I (2010) Photocatalytic oxidation of grey water over titanium dioxide suspensions. Desalination 262:141–146

  147. 147.

    Armanious A, Özkan A, Sohmen U, Gulyas H (2011) Inorganic greywater matrix impact on photocatalytic oxidation: does flocculation of TiO2 nanoparticles impair process efficiency? Water Sci Technol 63:2808–2813

  148. 148.

    Michael I, Rizzo L, McArdell CS, Manaia CM, Merlin C, Schwartz T et al (2013) Urban wastewater treatment plants as hotspots for the release of antibiotics in the environment: a review. Water Res 47:957–995

  149. 149.

    Rizzo L, Meric S, Guida M, Kassinos D, Belgiorno V (2009) Heterogenous photocatalytic degradation kinetics and detoxification of an urban wastewater treatment plant effluent contaminated with pharmaceuticals. Water Res 43:4070–4078

  150. 150.

    Mascolo G, Balest L, Cassano D, Laera G, Lopez A, Pollice A et al (2010) Biodegradability of pharmaceutical industrial wastewater and formation of recalcitrant organic compounds during aerobic biological treatment. Biores Technol 101:2585–2591

  151. 151.

    Deng F, Zhao L, Luo X, Luo S, Dionysiou DD (2018) Highly efficient visible-light photocatalytic performance of Ag/AgIn5S8 for degradation of tetracycline hydrochloride and treatment of real pharmaceutical industry wastewater. Chem Eng J 333:423–433

  152. 152.

    Alalm MG, Tawfik A, Ookawara S (2015) Comparison of solar TiO2 photocatalysis and solar photo-Fenton for treatment of pesticides industry wastewater: operational conditions, kinetics, and costs. J Water Process Eng 8:55–63

  153. 153.

    Fenoll J, Garrido I, Flores P, Hellín P, Vela N, Navarro G et al (2019) Implementation of a new modular facility to detoxify agro-wastewater polluted with neonicotinoid insecticides in farms by solar photocatalysis. Energy 175:722–729

  154. 154.

    Kushniarou A, Garrido I, Fenoll J, Vela N, Flores P, Navarro G et al (2019) Solar photocatalytic reclamation of agro-waste water polluted with twelve pesticides for agricultural reuse. Chemosphere 214:839–845

  155. 155.

    Singh P, Lakhan Singh R (2017) Bio-removal of azo dyes: a review. Int J Appl Sci Biotechnol 5(2):108–126

  156. 156.

    Gita S, Hussan A, Choudhury T (2017) Impact of textile dyes waste on aquatic environments and its treatment. Environ Ecol. 35:2349–2353

  157. 157.

    Zhou Z, Lin S, Yue T, Lee T-C (2014) Adsorption of food dyes from aqueous solution by glutaraldehyde cross-linked magnetic chitosan nanoparticles. J Food Eng 126:133–141

  158. 158.

    Klamerth N, Rizzo L, Malato S, Maldonado MI, Agüera A, Fernández-Alba AR (2010) Degradation of fifteen emerging contaminants at μgL−1 initial concentrations by mild solar photo-Fenton in MWTP effluents. Water Res 44:545–554

  159. 159.

    Rodríguez-Chueca J, Polo-López MI, Mosteo R, Ormad MP, Fernández-Ibáñez P (2014) Disinfection of real and simulated urban wastewater effluents using a mild solar photo-Fenton. Appl Catal B 150–151:619–629

  160. 160.

    Wang N, Zheng T, Zhang G, Wang P (2016) A review on Fenton-like processes for organic wastewater treatment. J Environ Chem Eng 4:762–787

  161. 161.

    De Luca A, Dantas RF, Esplugas S (2014) Assessment of iron chelates efficiency for photo-Fenton at neutral pH. Water Res 61:232–242

  162. 162.

    Papoutsakis S, Miralles-Cuevas S, Oller I, Garcia Sanchez JL, Pulgarin C, Malato S (2015) Microcontaminant degradation in municipal wastewater treatment plant secondary effluent by EDDS assisted photo-Fenton at near-neutral pH: an experimental design approach. Catal Today 252:61–69

  163. 163.

    Iervolino G, Vaiano V, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Sarno G, Ciambelli P et al (2015) Influence of operating conditions in the photo-fenton removal of tartrazine on structured catalysts. Chem Eng Trans 43:979–984

  164. 164.

    Sohrabi MR, Khavaran A, Shariati S, Shariati S (2017) Removal of carmoisine edible dye by fenton and photo fenton processes using taguchi orthogonal array design. Arab J Chem 10:S3523–S3531

  165. 165.

    Feng J, Hu X, Yue PL (2005) Discoloration and mineralization of Orange II by using a bentonite clay-based Fe nanocomposite film as a heterogeneous photo-Fenton catalyst. Water Res 39:89–96

  166. 166.

    He J, Tao X, Ma W, Zhao J (2002) Heterogeneous photo-Fenton degradation of an azo dye in aqueous H2O2/Iron oxide dispersions at neutral pHs. Chem Lett 31:86–87

  167. 167.

    Vourch M, Balannec B, Chaufer B, Dorange G (2008) Treatment of dairy industry wastewater by reverse osmosis for water reuse. Desalination 219:190–202

  168. 168.

    Janczukowicz W, Zieliński M, Dębowski M (2008) Biodegradability evaluation of dairy effluents originated in selected sections of dairy production. Biores Technol 99:4199–4205

  169. 169.

    Murcia JJ, Hernández-Laverde M, Rojas H, Muñoz E, Navío JA, Hidalgo MC (2018) Study of the effectiveness of the flocculation-photocatalysis in the treatment of wastewater coming from dairy industries. J Photochem Photobiol A 358:256–264

  170. 170.

    Lamas Samanamud GR, Loures CCA, Souza AL, Salazar RFS, Oliveira IS, Silva MB et al (2012) Heterogeneous photocatalytic degradation of dairy wastewater using immobilized ZnO. ISRN Chemical Engineering. 2012:1–8

  171. 171.

    Lucchetti R, Siciliano A, Clarizia L, Russo D, Di Somma I, Natale F et al (2017) Sacrificial photocatalysis: removal of nitrate and hydrogen production by nano-copper-loaded P25 titania. A kinetic and ecotoxicological assessment. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:5898–5907

  172. 172.

    Li Y, Wang L, Cai T, Zhang S, Liu Y, Song Y et al (2017) Glucose-assisted synthesize 1D/2D nearly vertical CdS/MoS2 heterostructures for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen evolution. Chem Eng J 321:366–374

  173. 173.

    Wang X, Dong H, Hu Z, Qi Z, Li L (2017) Fabrication of a Cu2O/Au/TiO2 composite film for efficient photocatalytic hydrogen production from aqueous solution of methanol and glucose. Mater Sci Eng, B 219:10–19

  174. 174.

    Speltini A, Scalabrini A, Maraschi F, Sturini M, Pisanu A, Malavasi L et al (2018) Improved photocatalytic H2 production assisted by aqueous glucose biomass by oxidized g-C3N4. Int J Hydrogen Energy 43:14925–14933

  175. 175.

    Iervolino G, Vaiano V, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Galluzzi A, Polichetti M, et al (2018) Hydrogen production from glucose degradation in water and wastewater treated by Ru-LaFeO3 /Fe2O3 magnetic particles photocatalysis and heterogeneous photo-Fenton 43:2184–2196

  176. 176.

    Tijare SN, Bakardjieva S, Subrt J, Joshi MV, Rayalu SS, Hishita S et al (2014) Synthesis and visible light photocatalytic activity of nanocrystalline PrFeO3perovskite for hydrogen generation in ethanol–water system. J Chem Sci 126:517–525

  177. 177.

    Caravaca A, Jones W, Hardacre C, Bowker M (2016) H(2) production by the photocatalytic reforming of cellulose and raw biomass using Ni, Pd, Pt and Au on titania. Proc Math Phys Eng Sci 472:20160054–20160075

  178. 178.

    Vaiano V, Iervolino G, Sarno G, Sannino D, Rizzo L, Murcia Mesa JJ et al (2015) Simultaneous production of CH4 and H2 from photocatalytic reforming of glucose aqueous solution on sulfated Pd-TiO2 catalysts. Oil Gas Sci Technol 70:891–902

  179. 179.

    Saxena G, Chandra R, Bharagava RN (2017) Environmental Pollution, Toxicity Profile and Treatment Approaches for Tannery Wastewater and Its Chemical Pollutants. Rev Environ Contam Toxicol 240:31–69

  180. 180.

    Dixit S, Yadav A, Dwivedi PD, Das M (2015) Toxic hazards of leather industry and technologies to combat threat: a review. J Clean Prod 87:39–49

  181. 181.

    Antonopoulou M, Chondrodimou I, Bairamis F, Giannakas A, Konstantinou I (2017) Photocatalytic reduction of Cr(VI) by char/TiO2 composite photocatalyst: optimization and modeling using the response surface methodology (RSM). Environ Sci Pollut Res 24:1063–1072

  182. 182.

    Shet A, Shetty KV (2016) Photocatalytic degradation of phenol using Ag core-TiO2 shell (Ag@TiO2) nanoparticles under UV light irradiation. Environ Sci Pollut Res 23:20055–20064

  183. 183.

    Vaiano V, Iervolino G (2018) Facile method to immobilize ZnO particles on glass spheres for the photocatalytic treatment of tannery wastewater. J Colloid Interface Sci 518:192–199

  184. 184.

    Caracciolo D, Vaiano V, Matarangolo M, Sacco O, Sannino D, Gambicorti T et al (2017) Treatment of dyeing and finishing waters using innovative photocatalysts. Chem Eng Trans 60:187–192

  185. 185.

    High-level expert group on key enabling technologies—final report”. 2011. Retrieved October 2017:1–56

Download references

Acknowledgements

This work is part of a project that has received funding from the European Union’s Horizon 2020 under the Innovative Training Networks (ITN-ETN) programme Marie Skłodowska-Curie Grant (ANtibioticS and mobile resistance elements in WastEwater Reuse applications: risks and innovative solutions) agreement no. 675530.

Author information

Correspondence to Luigi Rizzo.

Additional information

Publisher's Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

This article is part of the Topical Collection “Heterogeneous Photocatalysis”; edited by Mario J. Muñoz-Batista, Alexander Navarrete Muñoz and Rafael Luque.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Iervolino, G., Zammit, I., Vaiano, V. et al. Limitations and Prospects for Wastewater Treatment by UV and Visible-Light-Active Heterogeneous Photocatalysis: A Critical Review. Top Curr Chem (Z) 378, 7 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s41061-019-0272-1

Download citation

Keywords

  • Energy recovery
  • Hydrogen production
  • Industrial wastewater
  • Photocatalysis
  • Technology readiness level
  • Urban wastewater