Topics in Current Chemistry

, 377:24 | Cite as

Characterization of Photo-catalysts: From Traditional to Advanced Approaches

  • Uriel Caudillo-Flores
  • Irene Barba-Nieto
  • Mario J. Muñoz-Batista
  • Anna KubackaEmail author
  • Marcos Fernández-GarcíaEmail author
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Heterogeneous Photocatalysis


The article provides an overview of the most relevant characterization results of heterogeneous photo-catalytic materials available in the literature. First, we present a summary of the ex situ utilization of physico-chemical characterization techniques. In the majority of current works, pre and post-reaction samples are subjected to ex situ analysis using a multitechnique approach which attempts to render information about the morphological, structural, and electronic properties of relevance to interpret photoactivity. Details of the effects on physico-chemical observables of the nanostructure and the complex chemical nature (considering mono and multiphase materials with presence of several chemical elements) of typical photo-catalysts will be analyzed. Modern studies however emphasize the use of in situ tools in order to establish activity–structure links. To this end, the first point to pay attention to is to consider carefully the interaction between light and matter at the reaction cell where the characterization is carried out. Operando and spectro-kinetic methodologies will be reviewed as they would render valuable and trusting results and thus will pave the way for the future developments in photocatalysis.


Spectroscopy Kinetics In situ Operando Spectro-kinetic Multitechnique approach 



We thank MINECO (Spain) for financial support through the ENE2016-77798-C4-1-R Grant. The support by Secretaria de Ciencia Tecnología e Innovación of CDMX (SECTEI, México. U. Caudillo-Flores) is also acknowledged. I. Barba-Nieto thanks MINECO for a FPI doctoral fellowship (BES-2017-080069).


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Instituto de Catálisis y Petroleoquímica CSICMadridSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Química OrgánicaUniversidad de CórdobaCórdobaSpain

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