Myco-Remediation of Xenobiotic Organic Compounds for a Sustainable Environment: A Critical Review

  • Efaq Noman
  • Adel Al-GheethiEmail author
  • Radin Maya Saphira Radin Mohamed
  • Balkis A. Talip


In this article, the utilization of fungi for the degradation of xenobiotic organic compounds (XOCs) from different wastewater and aqueous solutions has been reviewed. The myco-remediation (myco-enzymes, myco-degradation, and myco-sorption) process is widely used to remove XOCs, which are not easily biodegradable. The removal of XOCs from textile wastewaters through chemical and physical processes has been addressed by many researchers. Currently, the application of oxidative enzymes [manganese peroxidase (MnP), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and laccase] and myco-adsorption is becoming more common for the removal of XOCs from wastewater. Although the advanced oxidation process (AOPs) is a preferred technology for removing XOCs, its use is restricted due to its relatively high cost, which led to research studies on non-traditional and low-cost technology. The current review aimed to organize the scattered available information on the potential of myco-remediation for XOC removal. Moreover, the utilization of agricultural wastes as a production substrate for oxidative enzymes has been reported by many authors. Agricultural waste materials are highly inducible for oxidative enzyme production by fungi and are cost-effective in comparison to commercial substances. It is evident from the literature survey of 80 recently published papers that myco-enzymes have demonstrated outstanding XOC removal capabilities.

Graphical Abstract

Fungal laccase enzyme is the first step to degrade the lignin and then to get the carbon source form the cellulose by cellulose enzyme.


Oxidative enzymes Myco-remediation Azo dyes Optimization Mechanisms 



The authors wish to thank The Ministry of Education Malaysia under Fundamental Research Grant Scheme (FRGS Vot No. K101) for supporting this research and Centre of Graduate Studies (CGS), Universiti Tun Hussien Onn Malaysia (UTHM) for Biasiswazah Scholarship for Efaq Ali Noman. Special gratitude to all laboratory members of Micropollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Faculty of Civil and Environmental Engineering, UTHM for entire guidance and facilitation for this research.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Microbiology, Faculty of Applied SciencesTaiz UniversityTaizYemen
  2. 2.Faculty of Applied Sciences and TechnologyUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM)MuarMalaysia
  3. 3.Micro-pollutant Research Centre (MPRC), Department of Water and Environmental Engineering, Faculty of Civil and Environmental EngineeringUniversiti Tun Hussein Onn MalaysiaBatu PahatMalaysia

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