Emerging Trends in the Syntheses of Heterocycles Using Graphene-based Carbocatalysts: An Update

  • Sharoni Gupta
  • Rukhsar Banu
  • Chetna Ameta
  • Rakshit Ameta
  • Pinki Bala PunjabiEmail author


Graphene-based carbocatalysts owing to numerous amazing properties such as large specific surface area, high intrinsic mobility, excellent thermal and electrical conductivities, chemical stability, ease of functionalization, simple method of preparation, effortless recovery and recyclability have gained a superior position amongst the conventional homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysts. In this review, an endeavor has been made to highlight the syntheses of diverse heterocyclic compounds catalyzed by graphene-based catalysts. Further, the study also reveals that all the catalysts could be reused several times without significant loss in their catalytic activity. Additionally, most of the reactions catalyzed by graphene-based carbocatalysts were carried out at ambient temperature and under solvent-free conditions. Thus, the graphene-based catalysts do not merely act as efficient catalysts but also serve as sustainable, green catalysts. This review is divided into various sub-sections, each of which comprehensively describes the preparation of a particular heterocyclic scaffold catalyzed by graphene-derived carbocatalyst in addition to synthesis of graphene oxide and reduced graphene oxide, functionalization, and structural features governing their catalytic properties.

Graphical Abstract

Synthesis of heterocycles catalyzed by graphene-based carbocatalysts.


Graphene-based carbocatalysts Heterocyclic compounds Sustainable Green catalysts Heterocyclic scaffold 



The authors, Sharoni Gupta and Rukhsar Banu, are thankful to University Grants Commission (UGC), New Delhi for providing financial assistance in the form of Maulana Azad National Fellowship.


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© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Microwave Synthesis Laboratory, Department of Chemistry, University College of ScienceMohanlal Sukhadia UniversityUdaipurIndia
  2. 2.Department of ChemistryJ. R. N. Rajasthan Vidyapeeth UniversityUdaipurIndia

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