Short-Term Migration and Children’s School Attendance: Evidence from Rural India
- 10 Downloads
Every year, millions of individuals from rural India migrate internally for short periods in search of employment. Temporary migration of parents can affect school attendance of children from these families. This study uses data from National Sample Survey Organisation’s (NSSO) Situation Assessment Survey 2013 to examine whether having a short-term migrant member in the family affects school attendance of children aged 6–10 years in rural India. An estimate from logit regression suggests that controlling for individual and family characteristics, village, district controls and NSSO state-region fixed effects, being from a migrant family reduces the probability that a child aged 6–10 years attends school by 15%. A series of robustness checks are done to ascertain the reliability of our finding. First, we assess the extent of potential omitted variable bias and find that our results remain unchanged even after controlling for bias. Second, we use instrumental variable approach since short-term migration of parents and school attendance of children can be driven by unobserved factors. In this method, the presence of a short-term migrant in the family is instrumented by lagged proportion of short-term migrants and lagged proportion of construction workers in the district. Our results remain robust to various specifications.
KeywordsShort-term migration Education Rural India Children, RTE
- Census of India. 2011. Provisional population totals. Officer of the Registrar General and Census Commissioner, India, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India.Google Scholar
- Chandrasekhar, S. and L. Bhattacharya. 2018. Understanding the scope of the challenge, and moving towards a coherent policy framework for education for seasonal migrants at the state level in India. Background paper for Global Education Monitoring Report 2019.Google Scholar
- Global Migration Group. 2017. Handbook for improving the production and use of migration data for development, global knowledge partnership for migration and development (KNOMAD). Washington, DC: World Bank.Google Scholar
- Government of India. 2010. Employment and unemployment situation in India 2007–08. Report Number 531, National Sample Survey Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/531_final.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Government of India. 2011. Key indicators of employment and unemployment in India 2009–10. National Sample Survey Ofiice, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/Key_Indicators_Emp_%26_Unemp_66th_round.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Government of India. 2014a. The right of children to free and compulsory education act, 2009 the 3rd year. Ministry of Human Resource Development, Department of School Education and Literacy, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://seshagun.gov.in/sites/default/files/publication/RTE_3rd_year.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Government of India. 2014b. Key indicators of situations of agricultural households in India. Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/KI_70_33_19dec14.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Government of India. 2014c. Employment and unemployment situation in India. Report Number 554, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/nss_report_554_31jan14.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Government of India. 2016a. Education in India. Report Number 575, National Sample Survey Office, Ministry of Statistics and Programme Implementation, New Delhi, India. Available at: http://mospi.nic.in/sites/default/files/publication_reports/nss_rep_575.pdf.
- Government of India. 2016b. Economic survey of India. Department of Economic Affairs, Ministry of Finance.Google Scholar
- Government of India. 2017. Report of the working group on migration. Ministry of Housing and Urban Poverty Alleviation, India. Available at: http://mohua.gov.in/upload/uploadfiles/files/1566.pdf. Accessed 9 Nov 2019.
- Hanson, G.H. and C. Woodruff. 2003. Emigration and educational attainment in Mexico, 288. Mimeographed: University of California at San Diego.Google Scholar
- Keshri, K. and R.B. Bhagat. 2012. Temporary and seasonal migration: Regional pattern, characteristics and associated factors. Economic and Political Weekly 47(4): 81–88.Google Scholar
- RGI. 2011. Administrative atlas of India. Census of India, Office of the Registrar General, New Delhi http://censusindia.gov.in/2011census/maps/administrative_maps/Final%20Atlas%20India%202011.pdf. Accessed on 24 March 2019.
- Rogaly, B., J. Biswas, D. Coppard, A. Rafique, K. Rana, and A. Sengupta. 2001. Seasonal migration, social change and migrants’ rights: Lessons from West Bengal. Economic and Political Weekly 36: 4547–4559.Google Scholar
- Smita. 2008. Distress seasonal migration and its impact on children’s education, pp. 1–53. Research Monograph No 28, Consortium for Research on Educational Access, Transitions and Equity, India.Google Scholar
- Srivastava, R. 2011. Internal migration in India initiative. In National workshop on internal migration and human development in India, pp. 1–248. New Delhi: Indian Council of Social Science Research ICSSR.Google Scholar
- Srivastava, R. and R. Dasgupta. 2010. Small steps lead the way. The Learning and Migration Program (LAMP) of the AIF, New Delhi, India.Google Scholar
- UNESCO. 2019. Global education monitoring report 2019: Migration, displacement and education—building bridges, not walls. Paris: UNESCO.Google Scholar