Relations between chloride determination in real concrete structures by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by potentiometric titration

  • Carlos Eduardo Tino BalestraEmail author
  • Gustavo Savaris
  • Raissa Soares do Nascimento
  • Ronaldo Alves de Medeiros-Junior
Research Article


The technique of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-destructive method used in several applications in Civil Engineering for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements in different materials. This technique allows the analysis of materials by atomic excitations and identification of spectra obtained from defined wavelengths interpreted for each chemical element present in the material in a precise and fast quantification, optimizing characterization analysis in a laboratory. Although the benefits obtained from this technique are clear, problems regarding the quantification of chloride ion in concrete powder samples, obtained from real structures, end up, giving significant errors in relation to its quantification, which, in turn, overestimate the chloride concentration in the profiles more than 500%. In this way, this work presents a correlation between two methodologies using concrete powder samples from structures present in a marine environment for more than 40 years. These samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and potentiometric titration techniques in order to establish a correlation between the methods. The obtained results showed that there is a relationship between both techniques with a determination coefficient close to 1.


Chloride Corrosion Potentiometric titration XRF 



The authors thank the Fernando Lee Foundation for their support and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Eduardo Tino Balestra
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gustavo Savaris
    • 1
  • Raissa Soares do Nascimento
    • 2
  • Ronaldo Alves de Medeiros-Junior
    • 2
  1. 1.Federal Technological University of Paraná campus ToledoToledoBrazil
  2. 2.Centro Politécnico UFPRFederal University of Paraná, UFPRCuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.ToledoBrazil

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