Advertisement

Relations between chloride determination in real concrete structures by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and by potentiometric titration

  • Carlos Eduardo Tino BalestraEmail author
  • Gustavo Savaris
  • Raissa Soares do Nascimento
  • Ronaldo Alves de Medeiros-Junior
Research Article
  • 48 Downloads

Abstract

The technique of X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-destructive method used in several applications in Civil Engineering for the qualitative and quantitative determination of chemical elements in different materials. This technique allows the analysis of materials by atomic excitations and identification of spectra obtained from defined wavelengths interpreted for each chemical element present in the material in a precise and fast quantification, optimizing characterization analysis in a laboratory. Although the benefits obtained from this technique are clear, problems regarding the quantification of chloride ion in concrete powder samples, obtained from real structures, end up, giving significant errors in relation to its quantification, which, in turn, overestimate the chloride concentration in the profiles more than 500%. In this way, this work presents a correlation between two methodologies using concrete powder samples from structures present in a marine environment for more than 40 years. These samples were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy and potentiometric titration techniques in order to establish a correlation between the methods. The obtained results showed that there is a relationship between both techniques with a determination coefficient close to 1.

Keywords

Chloride Corrosion Potentiometric titration XRF 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank the Fernando Lee Foundation for their support and Coordination for the Improvement of Higher Education Personnel (CAPES) for financial support.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    American Society for Testing and Materials (2012) ASTM C1152: standard test method for acid-soluble chloride in mortar and concrete. ASTM, West ConshohockenGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    RILEM Recommendation. TC178-TMC (2013) Testing and modeling chloride penetration in concrete: methods for obtaining dust samples by means of grinding concrete in order to determine the chloride concentration profile. Mater Struct 46:337–344CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Delport DJ, Potgieter-Vermaak S, McCrindle RI, Potgieter JH (2011) Potentiometric determination of free chloride content in cement paste samples an alternative method for low budget laboratories. S Afr J Chem 63:108–114Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Pereira LFLC (2001) Determination of chlorides in concretes of Portland Cements: influence of cement type. Master Thesis. Department of Civil Construction Engineering. University of São Paulo, São Paulo state, Brazil, pp 28–36 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Silva FG (2006) Study of high performance concretes against the action of chlorides. Doctoral Thesis. Materials Science and Engineering Interuniversity. University of São Paulo, São Paulo state, Brazil, pp 50–51 (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Meira GR, Borba JC, Andrade C, Alonso C (2016) Penetration of chlorides in concrete structures in a marine atmosphere zone—results of 4 years of natural exposure in Northeast Brazil. Institute of Sciences Construction Eduardo Torroja, MadridGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Jeffery GH, Bassett J, Mendham J, Denney RC (1989) VOGEL’s textbook of quantitative inorganic analysis. A textbook of quantitative inorganic analysis, 5th edn. Longman Scientific & Technical, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    He F, Shi C, Yuan Q, Chen C, Zheng K (2012) AgNO3-based colorimetric methods for measurement of chloride penetration in concrete. Constr Build Mater 26:1–8CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Kim M-Y, Yang E-I, Yi S-T (2013) Application of the colorimetric method to chloride diffusion evaluation in concrete structures. Constr Build Mater 41:239–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Jenkins R, Vries JL (1967) Practical X-ray spectrometry, 2nd edn. Philips Technical Library, Eindhoven, pp 126–141Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Dehghan A, Peterson K, Riehm G, Bromerchenkel LH (2017) Application of X-ray microfluorescence for the determination of chloride diffusion coefficients in concrete chloride penetration experiments. Constr Build Mater 148:85–95CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Moradllo MK, Sudbrink B, Hu Q, Aboustait M, Tabb B, Ley MT, Davis JM (2017) Using micro X-ray fluorescence to image chloride profiles in concrete. Cem Concr Res 92:128–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Pozniĉ M, Gabrovšek R, Novič M (1999) Ion chromatography determination of chloride and sulphate in cement. Cem Concr Res 29:441–443CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Torres-Luque MM, Bastidas-Arteaga E, Schoefs F, Sánchez-Silva M, Osma JF (2014) Non-destructive methods for measuring chloride ingress into concrete: state-of-the-art and future challenges. Constr Build Mater 68:68–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Fares M, Villain G, Bonnetb S, Lopes SP, Thauvin B, Thiery M (2018) Determining chloride content profiles in concrete using an electrical resistivity tomography device. Cement Concr Compos 94:315–326CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Abbas Y, Pargar F, Koleva DA, Breugel K, Olthuis W, Berg A (2018) Non-destructive measurement of chloride ions concentration in concrete—a comparative analysis of limitations and prospects. Constr Build Mater 174:376–387CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Atkins CP, Scantlebury JD, Nedwell PJ, Blatch SP (1996) Monitoring chloride concentrations in hardened cement pastes using ion selective electrodes. Cem Concr Res 26:319–324CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Angst U, Elsener B, Larsen CK, Vennesland Ø (2010) Potentiometric determination of the chloride ion activity in cement based materials. J Appl Electrochem 40(3):561–573CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Elsener B, Zimmermann L, Böhni H (2003) Non destructive determination of the free chloride content in cement based materials. Mater Corros 54(6):440–446CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Yawar Abbas Y, Olthuis W, Berg A (2013) A chronopotentiometric approach for measuring chloride ion concentration. Sens Actuators B Chem 188:433–439CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Plooy R, Villain G, Lopes SP, Ihamouten A, Dérobert X, Thauvin B (2015) Electromagnetic non-destructive evaluation techniques for the monitoring of water and chloride ingress into concrete: a comparative study. Mater Struct 48:369–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Lecieux Y, Schoefs F, Bonnet S, Lecieux T, Lopes SP (2015) Quantification and uncertainty analysis of a structural monitoring device: application to the detection of chloride in concrete using electrical resistivity. Nondestruct Test Eval 30(3):216–232CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Shi M, Chen Z, Sun J (1999) Determination of chloride diffusivity in concrete by AC impedance spectroscopy. Cem Concr Res 29:1111–1115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Proverbio E, Carassiti F (1997) Evaluation of chloride content in concrete by X-ray fluorescence. Cem Concr Res 27:1213–1223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Wilsch G, Weritz F, Schaurich D, Wiggenhauser H (2005) Determination of chloride content in concrete structures with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Constr Build Mater 19(10):724–730CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gondal MA, Yamani ZH, Hussain T, Al-Amoudi OSB (2009) Determination of chloride content in different types of cement using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrosc Lett 42:171–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Šavija B, Schlangen E, Pacheco J, Millar S, Eichler T, Wilsch G (2014) Chloride ingress in cracked concrete: a laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) study. J Adv Concr Technol 12(10):425–442CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Millar S, Kruschwitz S, Wilsch G (2019) Determination of total chloride content in cement pastes with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). Cem Concr Res 117:16–22CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Dietz T, Klose J, Kohns P, Ankerhold G (2019) Quantitative determination of chlorides by molecular laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B 152:59–67CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Tang J-L, Wang J-N (2007) Measurement of chloride-ion concentration with long-period grating technology. Smart Mater Struct 16(3):665–672CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Laferrière F, Inaudi D, Kronenberg P, Smith IFC (2008) A new system for early chloride detection in concrete. Smart Mater Struct 17(4):4501–4508CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    Lam CCC, Mandamparambil R, Sun T, Grattan KTV, Nanukuttan SV, Taylor SE, Basheer PAM (2009) Optical fiber refractive index sensor for chloride ion monitoring. IEEE Sens J 9(5):525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Ding L, Li Z, Ding Q, Shen X, Yuan Y, Huang J (2018) Microstructured optical fiber based chloride ion sensing method for concrete health monitoring. Sens Actuators B Chem 260:763–769CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    Bonta M, Eitzenberger A, Burtscher S, Limbeck A (2016) Quantification of chloride in concrete samples using LA-ICP-MS. Cem Concr Res 86:78–84CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Dérobert X, Lataste JF, Balayssac J-P, Laurens S (2017) Evaluation of chloride contamination in concrete using electromagnetic non-destructive testing methods. NDT&E Int 89:19–29CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Villain G, Ihamouten A, Plooy RD, Lopes SP, Dérobert X (2015) Use of electromagnetic non-destructive techniques for monitoring water and chloride ingress into concrete. Near Surf Geophys 13:299–309CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Tripathi SR, Ogura H, Kawagoe H, Inoue H, Hasegawa T, Takeya K, Kawase K (2012) Measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete structures using terahertz time domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). Corros Sci 62:5–10CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Melo Júnior AS (2007) Quantitative analisys of powder material at campinas region using X-ray microfluorescence and sincroton radioactive. Doctoral Thesis. University of Campinas, Campinas, São Paulo State, Brazil (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Santos ES et al (2013) X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy for determination of chemical elements. Biosfere Encyclopedia 9(17):3413–3442Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Balestra CET (2017) Analysis of chloride profile obtained from real concrete structures present in different marine aggressive zones. Doctoral Thesis. Aeronautics Institute of Technology. São José dos Campos, São Paulo, Brazil (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Peel MC, Fynlaysoon BL, McMahon TA (2007) Update world map of Köppen–Geiger climate classification. Hydrol Earth Syst Sci 11:1633–1644CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Fernando Lee Foundation (2018) Fernando Lee Foundation. http://www.fundacaofernandolee.org/. Accessed 25 Apr 2018
  43. 43.
    Caldas LM (2000) Historical research about Arvoredo Island and Fernando Lee Foundation. Fernando Lee Foundation, Guarujá (in Portuguese) Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Balestra CET et al (2018) Development of laboratory equipment to obtain powdered concrete samples to determine chlorides concentration for durability studies. J Build Pathol Rehabilit 3:1–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature Switzerland AG 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Carlos Eduardo Tino Balestra
    • 1
    • 3
    Email author
  • Gustavo Savaris
    • 1
  • Raissa Soares do Nascimento
    • 2
  • Ronaldo Alves de Medeiros-Junior
    • 2
  1. 1.Federal Technological University of Paraná campus ToledoToledoBrazil
  2. 2.Centro Politécnico UFPRFederal University of Paraná, UFPRCuritibaBrazil
  3. 3.ToledoBrazil

Personalised recommendations