Solution of the Optimal Power Flow Problem Considering FACTS Devices by Using Lightning Search Algorithm

  • Serhat DumanEmail author
Research Paper


In this study, the optimal power flow (OPF) problem including flexible AC transmission systems (FACTS) devices, ever increasing in the planning and operating of the modern power systems has been addressed. The thyristor-controlled series capacitor and the thyristor-controlled phase shifter are used as FACTS devices. The solution to this problem is proposed by using a new heuristic algorithm known as the lightning search algorithm (LSA) based on the phenomenon of lighting. The LSA method is generalized from the mechanism of step leader propagation. The performance, success and robustness in the solution of this problem of the LSA are evaluated and tested on IEEE test systems, which are the modified IEEE 30-bus and IEEE 57-bus test systems. The multi-objective functions are used in the solution analysis processes of this problem. These objective functions are defined as the minimization of the fuel cost, minimization of the emission and minimization of the active power loss of the test system. The numerical results of the LSA are compared to different methods presented in the recent literature, which are ant lion optimizer, grey wolf optimizer, dragonfly algorithm, moth-flame optimization. The outcomes obtained from simulation study indicate the potential of the LSA method in solving the OPF problem including FACTS devices for operating and planning of the modern power systems.


Lightning search algorithm Optimal power flow FACTS devices Power systems Optimization 

List of Symbols

δi, δj

Angles of the ith and jth buses

Vi, Vj

Voltage magnitudes of the ith and jth buses

Pij, Qij

Active and reactive power flows between the ith and jth buses

Rij, Xij

Resistance and reactance of transmission line between the ith and jth buses


Reactance of transmission line with TCSC integrated in between the ith and jth buses


Objective function of the problem


Equality limitations of the problem


Inequality limitations of the problem

hl, hu

Represented minimum and maximum limits of the inequality constraints


The active power value of generator in the slack bus


The voltage magnitude values of all the load buses of the test system


The reactive power of the generating units of the test system


The total number of the all load buses of the test system


The total number of the generating units of the test system


The total number of transmission lines of the test system


The active power output values of the generating units excluding at the slack bus in test system


The terminal voltage values of the generating units


Shunt VAR compensator


The transformer tap ratio


The operating range value of TCSC device


Phase shift angle of the TCPS


The number of shunt VAR compensator


The number of tap regulating transformers


The total number of TCSC devices installed in the test systems


The total number of TCPS devices in the test systems

PLi, QLi

Demand active and reactive power in the ith load bus

PGi, QGi

Active and reactive power of the ith generating unit

Pis, Qis

Injected active and reactive power of TCPS at ith bus


The number of all buses in the test system


Admittance value of the transmission line connected between ith and jth buses


Admittance angle of the transmission line connected between ith and jth buses


The current velocities of the projectile


The initial velocities of the projectile


The speed of light


The constant ionization rate


The mass of the projectile


The length of the path traveled


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Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Faculty of TechnologyDuzce UniversityDuzceTurkey

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