Enhancement of Flow Boiling Heat Transfer Performance Using Single-Step Electrodeposited Cu–Al2O3 Nanocomposite Coating on Copper Substrate

  • Sanjay Kumar GuptaEmail author
  • Rahul Dev Misra
Research paper


The higher-thermal conductive Cu–Al2O3 nanoparticles are deposited on the copper surface by using single-step electrodeposition technique. The developed Cu–Al2O3 nanocomposite-coated surfaces attained excellent adhesiveness with copper substrate. Again, the surface morphology parameters like wettability, roughness, porosity, and porous layer thickness, as per the necessity in structured surfaces, can be easily managed by managing the electrodeposition parameters like potential difference, deposition time, current density, and electrolyte concentration. The surface morphology characterization is carried out with respect to the wettability, roughness, coating thickness, porosity, and average pore diameter. The flow boiling heat transfer experiments at different mass flow rates with deionized (DI) water are carried out in a minichannel of developed experimental setup. The Cu–Al2O3 coating offers lower thermal resistance due to its higher thermal conductivity and lower coating thickness. Again, the percentage enhancement in critical heat flux (CHF) and boiling heat transfer coefficient (BHTC) of the Cu–Al2O3-coated surfaces is decreased with the increase in mass flow rate, which is owing to the partial wetting of the pores at higher mass flow rate. The maximum augmentations in BHTC and CHF for the coated surfaces are achieved up to 84% and 86% as compared to the bare surface, respectively, which are due to the improvement in surface wettability and formation of huge number of cavities/pores on coated surfaces. Thus, the porous surface with minichannel is the potential candidate for the microelectronics cooling devices due to its compact size, lower heating surface temperature, higher CHF, and higher BHTC.


Heat transfer Boiling CHF Minichannel Surface coating 

List of Symbols


Heat transfer coefficient


Thermal conductivity


Heat flux


Fluid average temperature


Fluid inlet temperature


Fluid outlet temperature


Heating (boiling) surface temperature


Average surface 1.5 mm below the heating surface temperature


Vertical distance between the thermocouples



The authors gratefully acknowledge SAIF, Indian Institute of Technology Mumbai, India, for providing FEG–SEM facility.


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Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Mechanical EngineeringNational Institute of TechnologySilcharIndia

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