# Application of Soft Computing Techniques for River Flow Prediction in the Downstream Catchment of Mahanadi River Basin Using Partial Duration Series, India

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## Abstract

The delta region of the Mahanadi river basin is faced with high floods having arisen many questions like (1) due to the release of Hirakud dam, (2) due to the middle region catchment contribution (Tel tributary at Kantamal station and Ong tributary at Salebhata station) and (3) due to an increase in heavy rainfalls over the basin. To answer this, we choose the partial duration series (PDS) having an average number of flood peaks per year (*λ* = 3) at Naraj based on the capacity of the existing embankment which mitigates floods up to 28,400 m^{3}/s and analyze the trends of peak discharge of PDS having *λ* = 3 at the Naraj, Hirakud dam and middle region to know the flow behavior which is responsible for flooding problem in the delta of Mahanadi basin. Subsequently, the trend of extreme rainfall over the entire basin and at the middle region of the basin is analyzed. Analysis of trends of extreme floods in relation to the trends of extreme rainfall to have a proper understanding of the causes of changing floods over the basin is important. Then, runoff at Naraj is estimated based on two techniques: artificial neural networks with different algorithms and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) using five different input combinations of peak runoff data and rainfall data of upstream locations and compare their performance based on different indices, namely correlation coefficient (*R*), index of agreement (*d*), root-mean-square error and Nash–Sutcliffe efficiency (*E*) to obtain the best input–output model. From the analysis, it is shown that ANFIS techniques as well as the neural network with Levenberg–Marquardt algorithm performs better for estimating runoff at Naraj and that gives the clear idea about the delta flooding. Also, the analysis revealed the answer arisen by many questions regarding the delta flood problem and which are due to the middle region catchment contribution and an increase in extreme rainfall.

## Keywords

Trend analysis Flow prediction ANN ANFIS Mahanadi river## Notes

### Acknowledgements

The authors would like express their thanks to the National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, for providing the research environment.

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