Evaluation and Verification of Finite Element Analytical Models in Reinforced Concrete Members

  • Hosein NaderpourEmail author
  • Masoomeh Mirrashid
Research Paper


In studies on structural members and their analysis, the verification has a special placement. To ensure the accuracy of the results of any analysis, confirming the correctness of the modeling is necessary. In the nonlinear analysis, this problem has more difficulties and the researcher spends a lot of time considering different modeling elements and determining their needed parameters for different behavior curves to identify the appropriate model for the research. After this process, the model also needs to verify whether the considered model is suitable or not. This paper presents unified approaches with acceptable accuracy for modeling the reinforced concrete members including beams, columns, joints and moment frames to provide them for nonlinear analysis. The details of the elements, the method of determining the properties of the required springs and also the necessary equations are described, and the models are verified in each section based on valid laboratory tests. The presented structure of the elements in this paper can be directly used in any research related to the analysis of reinforced concrete members.


Verification Finite element analysis Reinforced concrete members Nonlinear analysis SeismoStruct software 


  1. ACI-352R-02 (2010) Recommendations for design of beam–column connections in monolithic reinforced concrete structures. ACI-ASCE Committee 352Google Scholar
  2. Altoontash A (2004) Simulation and damage models for performance assessment of reinforced concrete beam–column joints. Stanford University Stanford, CaliforniaGoogle Scholar
  3. Ataei A, Bradford MA (2016) Numerical study of deconstructable flush end plate composite joints to concrete-filled steel tubular columns. In: Proceedings of structures. Elsevier, pp 130–143Google Scholar
  4. Bergan P, Holand I (1979) Nonlinear finite element analysis of concrete structures. Comput Methods Appl Mech Eng 17:443–467CrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  5. Buyukozturk O (1977) Nonlinear analysis of reinforced concrete structures. Comput Struct 7(1):149–156CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Domizio M, Ambrosini D, Curadelli O (2017) Nonlinear dynamic numerical analysis of a RC frame subjected to seismic loading. Eng Struct 138:410–424CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Faleschini F, Bragolusi P, Zanini MA, Zampieri P, Pellegrino C (2017) Experimental and numerical investigation on the cyclic behavior of RC beam column joints with EAF slag concrete. Eng Struct 152:335–347CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Hazelwood T, Jefferson AD, Lark RJ, Gardner DR (2015) Numerical simulation of the long-term behaviour of a self-healing concrete beam versus standard reinforced concrete. Eng Struct 102:176–188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hu H-T, Lin F-M, Jan Y-Y (2004) Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete beams strengthened by fiber-reinforced plastics. Compos Struct 63(3–4):271–281CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hutton DV, Wu J (2004) Fundamentals of finite element analysis. McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  11. Imbsen C (2002) XTRACT Software, cross-section analysis program for structural engineers. 2.6. Imbsen and Associates Inc, MemphisGoogle Scholar
  12. Jeon J-S (2013) Aftershock vulnerability assessment of damaged reinforced concrete buildings in California. Georgia Institute of TechnologyGoogle Scholar
  13. Juntanalikit P, Jirawattanasomkul T, Pimanmas A (2016) Experimental and numerical study of strengthening non-ductile RC columns with and without lap splice by carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) jacketing. Eng Struct 125:400–418CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kang S-B, Tan KH (2017) Analytical study on reinforced concrete frames subject to compressive arch action. Eng Struct 141:373–385CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Kheyroddin A, Mirrashid M, Arshadi H (2017) An investigation on the behavior of concrete cores in suspended tall buildings. Iran J Sci Technol Trans Civ Eng 41(4):383–388. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kim J, LaFave JM (2009) Joint shear behavior of reinforced concrete beam–column connections subjected to seismic lateral loading. Newmark Structural Engineering Laboratory. University of Illinois at Urbana-ChampaignGoogle Scholar
  17. Kuroda T, Meguro K, Worakanchana K (2004) Analysis of confining effect on failure behavior of reinforced concrete structure. In: Proceedings of the 13 WCEE: 13th world conference on earthquake engineering conference proceedings. Vancouver, BC, CanadaGoogle Scholar
  18. Lee J-Y, Hwang H-B (2010) Maximum shear reinforcement of reinforced concrete beams. ACI Struct J 107(5):580Google Scholar
  19. Lee J-Y, Choi I-J, Kim S-W (2011) Shear behavior of reinforced concrete beams with high-strength stirrups. ACI Struct J 108(5):620Google Scholar
  20. Li C, Hao H, Bi K (2017) Numerical study on the seismic performance of precast segmental concrete columns under cyclic loading. Eng Struct 148:373–386CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lowes LN, Mitra N, Altoontash A (2003) A beam–column joint model for simulating the earthquake response of reinforced concrete frames. PEER Report 2003/10, College of Engineering University of California, BerkeleyGoogle Scholar
  22. Lynn AC, Moehle JP, Mahin SA, Holmes WT (1996) Seismic evaluation of existing reinforced concrete building columns. Earthq Spectra 12(4):715–739CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Metelli G, Messali F, Beschi C, Riva P (2015) A model for beam–column corner joints of existing RC frame subjected to cyclic loading. Eng Struct 89:79–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oller S, Onate E, Oliver J, Lubliner J (1990) Finite element nonlinear analysis of concrete structures using a “plastic-damage model”. Eng Fract Mech 35(1–3):219–231CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Oñate E (2009) Introduction to the finite element method for structural analysis. In: Structural analysis with the finite element method: linear statics, pp 1–42Google Scholar
  26. Otani S (1981) Hysteresis models of reinforced concrete for earthquake response analysis. J Faculty Eng 36(2):407–441Google Scholar
  27. Pian TH (1995) State-of-the-art development of hybrid/mixed finite element method. Finite Elem Anal Des 21(1–2):5–20MathSciNetCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  28. Pinto A, Verzeletti G, Molina J, Varum H, Pinho R, Coelho E (2002) Pseudo-dynamic tests on non-seismic resisting RC frames (bare and selective retrofit frames). EUR Report, 20244Google Scholar
  29. Qu Y, Li X, Kong X, Zhang W, Wang X (2016) Numerical simulation on dynamic behavior of reinforced concrete beam with initial cracks subjected to air blast loading. Eng Struct 128:96–110CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ramberg W, Osgood WR (1943) Description of stress-strain curves by three parameters. Technical Note 902. National Advisory Committee on AeronauticsGoogle Scholar
  31. Richard B, Ile N, Frau A, Ma A, Loiseau O, Giry C, Ragueneau F (2015) Experimental and numerical study of a half-scaled reinforced concrete building equipped with thermal break components subjected to seismic loading up to severe damage state. Eng Struct 92:29–45CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Roehm C, Sasmal S, Novák B, Karusala R (2015) Numerical simulation for seismic performance evaluation of fibre reinforced concrete beam–column sub-assemblages. Eng Struct 91:182–196CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Seismosoft (2016a) SeismoStruct 2016—a computer program for static dynamic nonlinear analysis of framed structures. Seismosoft Ltd., Piazza CastelloGoogle Scholar
  34. Seismosoft (2016b) SeismoStruct (user manual). Seismosoft Ltd., Piazza CastelloGoogle Scholar
  35. Spacone E, El-Tawil S (2004) Nonlinear analysis of steel-concrete composite structures: state of the art. J Struct Eng 130(2):159–168CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Takeda T, Sozen MA, Nielsen NN (1970) Reinforced concrete response to simulated earthquakes. J Struct Div 96(12):2557–2573Google Scholar
  37. Tanaka H (1990) Effect of lateral confining reinforcement on the ductile behaviour of reinforced concrete columns. Doctor of Philosophy in Civil Engineering, University of Canterbury, Christchurch, New ZealandGoogle Scholar
  38. Tenchev RT, Li L, Purkiss J (2001) Finite element analysis of coupled heat and moisture transfer in concrete subjected to fire. Numer Heat Transf Part A Appl 39(7):685–710CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Tong L, Liu B, Zhao X-L (2017) Numerical study of fatigue behaviour of steel reinforced concrete (SRC) beams. Eng Fract Mech 178:477–496CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Vecchio FJ (1989) Nonlinear finite element analysis of reinforced concrete membranes. ACI Struct J 86(1):26–35Google Scholar
  41. Yoshikawa H, Wu Z, Tanabe T-A (1989) Analytical model for shear slip of cracked concrete. J Struct Eng 115(4):771–788CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Yu W (2006) Inelastic modeling of reinforcing bars and blind analysis of the benchmark tests on beam column joints under cyclic loading. Rose School–European School for Advanced Studies in Reduction of Seismic Risk, PaviaGoogle Scholar
  43. Zhang F, Wu C, Wang H, Zhou Y (2015) Numerical simulation of concrete filled steel tube columns against BLAST loads. Thin Walled Struct 92:82–92CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Civil EngineeringSemnan UniversitySemnanIran

Personalised recommendations