Effect on Electrical Properties of Gd-Doped BiFeO3–PbZrO3
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The (1 − x)(BiFe1−yGdyO3)−x(PbZrO3) [x = 0.5, y = 0.05, 0.10, 0.15, 0.20] were synthesized using a high-temperature solid-state reaction technique. X-ray analysis confirms the formation of the composites. The dielectric properties of the composites were studied. The hysteresis loop suggested that the materials were lossy. The impedance parameters were studied in a wide range of frequency (102–106 Hz) at different temperatures for all samples. The Nyquist plot suggested the contribution of bulk effect as well as grain boundary effect and the bulk resistance deceased with a rise in temperature for all the samples. The electrical transport confirmed the presence of hopping mechanism in the materials. The dc conductivity of the materials increased with a rise in temperature. The frequency variation of ac conductivity obeyed the Jonscher’s universal power law and confirmed the small polaron (SP) tunneling effect due to low activation energy for all the samples. Temperature dependence of dc and ac conductivity indicated the thermally activated process of the materials.
KeywordsXRD Dielectric constant Impedance Electrical conductivity Relaxation Phenomena
The authors acknowledge the financial support through DRS-I of UGC under SAP, School of Physics, Sambalpur University. One of the authors BB acknowledges the SERB under DST Fast Track Scheme for Young Scientist (Project No. SR/FTP/PS-036/2011) New Delhi, India).
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