Numerical Study of Heat Transfer Enhancement Using Al2O3–Graphene/Water Hybrid Nanofluid Flow in Mini Tubes

  • Ahmed A. HussienEmail author
  • Nadiahnor Md Yusop
  • Moh’d A. Al-Nimr
  • Mohd Z. Abdullah
  • Ayub Ahmed Janvekar
  • Mohamed H. Elnaggar
Research paper
Part of the following topical collections:
  1. Physics


Adding varieties of nanoparticles to the base fluid is a recent technique for boosting the thermal performance of mono-nanofluids and conventional fluids. The main intension of this article is to investigate the forced convection heat transfer of water-based Al2O3 nanofluid and Al2O3 + graphene hybrid nanofluid numerically. Selected volume concentrations of Al2O3/water nanofluid (0.3, 0.6, and 1.0 vol%) has been compared with Al2O3 + graphene hybrid nanofluid. The working fluids were tested in three different sizes of mini tubes, i.e., 2.1, 1.1, and 0.8 mm. The homogeneous model was breezed to simulate the hybrid nanofluids. Thermophysical and rheological properties of the nanofluids were taken from standard experimental tests which are available in the literature to validate toward computational study. The results clearly indicate usage of Al2O3/water nanofluid greatly enhances convection heat transfer performance in mini tube. A high enhancement in heat transfer coefficient by adding 0.0175 vol% graphene nanosheets was performed in simulation, which provide a range between 12.7 and 13.7% over Al2O3/water nanofluids. However, the divergence of impact for adding graphene on Al2O3 nanofluids was marginal with change in mini tube sizes. Moreover, extra penalty in pressure drop was noted.


Hybrid nanofluids Graphene nanosheets Heat transfer coefficient Pressure drop Mini tube 



The first author would like to thank Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) for financial support through USM fellowship.


  1. Akbari M, Galanis N, Behzadmehr A (2012) Comparative assessment of single and two-phase models for numerical studies of nanofluid turbulent forced convection. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 37:136–146CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Akhavan-Zanjani H, Saffar-Avval M, Mansourkiaei M, Sharif F, Ahadi M (2016) Experimental investigation of laminar forced convective heat transfer of graphene–water nanofluid inside a circular tube. Int J Therm Sci 100:316–323CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Balandin AA, Ghosh S, Bao W, Calizo I, Teweldebrhan D, Miao F, Lau CN (2008) Superior thermal conductivity of single-layer graphene. Nano Lett 8:902–907CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bonaccorso F, Colombo L, Yu G, Stoller M, Tozzini V, Ferrari AC, Ruoff RS, Pellegrini V (2015) Graphene, related two-dimensional crystals, and hybrid systems for energy conversion and storage. Science 347:1246501CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Ghozatloo A, Rashidi A, Shariaty-Niassar M (2014) Convective heat transfer enhancement of graphene nanofluids in shell and tube heat exchanger. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 53:136–141CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hussien AA, Abdullah MZ, Moh’d ANA (2016) Single-phase heat transfer enhancement in micro/minichannels using nanofluids: theory and applications. Appl Energy 164:733–755CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Hussien AA, Abdullah MZ, Yusop NM, Moh’d ANA, Atieh MA, Mehrali M (2017) Experiment on forced convective heat transfer enhancement using MWCNTs/GNPs hybrid nanofluid and mini-tube. Int J Heat Mass Transf 115:1121–1131CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Kalteh M, Abbassi A, Saffar-Avval M, Frijns A, Darhuber A, Harting J (2012) Experimental and numerical investigation of nanofluid forced convection inside a wide microchannel heat sink. Appl Therm Eng 36:260–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kohl M, Abdel-Khalik S, Jeter S, Sadowski D (2005) An experimental investigation of microchannel flow with internal pressure measurements. Int J Heat Mass Transf 48:1518–1533CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Labib MN, Nine MJ, Afrianto H, Chung H, Jeong H (2013) Numerical investigation on effect of base fluids and hybrid nanofluid in forced convective heat transfer. Int J Therm Sci 71:163–171CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Mehrali M, Sadeghinezhad E, Latibari ST, Kazi SN, Mehrali M, Zubir MN, Metselaar HS (2014) Investigation of thermal conductivity and rheological properties of nanofluids containing graphene nanoplatelets. Nanoscale Res Lett 9:15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Mehrali M, Sadeghinezhad E, Rosen MA, Latibari ST, Mehrali M, Metselaar HSC, Kazi SN (2015) Effect of specific surface area on convective heat transfer of graphene nanoplatelet aqueous nanofluids. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 68:100–108CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moghadassi A, Ghomi E, Parvizian F (2015) A numerical study of water based Al2O3 and Al2O3–Cu hybrid nanofluid effect on forced convective heat transfer. Int J Therm Sci 92:50–57CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nimmagadda R, Venkatasubbaiah K (2015) Conjugate heat transfer analysis of micro-channel using novel hybrid nanofluids (Al2O3 + Ag/water). Eur J Mech B Fluids 52:19–27MathSciNetCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Noie S, Heris SZ, Kahani M, Nowee S (2009) Heat transfer enhancement using Al2O3/water nanofluid in a two-phase closed thermosyphon. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 30:700–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Rowley RL (1982) A local composition model for multicomponent liquid mixture thermal conductivities. Chem Eng Sci 37:897–904CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Sadeghinezhad E, Mehrali M, Saidur R, Mehrali M, Latibari ST, Akhiani AR, Metselaar HSC (2016) A comprehensive review on graphene nanofluids: recent research, development and applications. Energy Convers Manag 111:466–487CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Saghir MZ, Ahadi A, Yousefi T, Farahbakhsh B (2016) Two-phase and single phase models of flow of nanofluid in a square cavity: comparison with experimental results. Int J Therm Sci 100:372–380CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Saidur R, Leong K, Mohammad H (2011) A review on applications and challenges of nanofluids. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 15:1646–1668CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Salman B, Mohammed H, Kherbeet AS (2012) Heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids flow in microtube with constant heat flux. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 39:1195–1204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Sarkar J, Ghosh P, Adil A (2015) A review on hybrid nanofluids: recent research, development and applications. Renew Sustain Energy Rev 43:164–177CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Shah RK, Bhatti MS (1987) Laminar convective heat transfer in ducts. In: Kakac S, Shah RK, Aung W (eds) Hand book of singlephase convective heat transfer, Wiley, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  23. Sohel M, Saidur R, Sabri MFM, Kamalisarvestani M, Elias M, Ijam A (2013) Investigating the heat transfer performance and thermophysical properties of nanofluids in a circular micro-channel. Int Commun Heat Mass Transf 42:75–81CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Sridhara V, Satapathy LN (2011) Al2O3-based nanofluids: a review. Nanoscale Res Lett 6:1–16CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Subramaniyan A, Ilangovan R (2015) Thermal conductivity of Cu2O–TiO2 composite-nanofluid based on Maxwell model. Int J Nanosci Nanotechnol 11(1):59–62Google Scholar
  26. Suresh S, Venkitaraj K, Selvakumar P, Chandrasekar M (2012) Effect of Al2O3–Cu/water hybrid nanofluid in heat transfer. Exp Therm Fluid Sci 38:54–60CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Tiwari AK, Ghosh P, Sarkar J (2013) Solar water heating using nanofluids: a comprehensive overview and environmental impact analysis. Int J Emerg Technol Adv Eng 3(3):221–224Google Scholar
  28. Vafaei S, Wen D (2012) Convective heat transfer of aqueous alumina nanosuspensions in a horizontal mini-channel. Heat Mass Transf 48:349–357CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wen D, Ding Y (2004) Experimental investigation into convective heat transfer of nanofluids at the entrance region under laminar flow conditions. Int J Heat Mass Transf 47:5181–5188CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Williams W, Buongiorno J, Hu L-W (2008) Experimental investigation of turbulent convective heat transfer and pressure loss of alumina/water and zirconia/water nanoparticle colloids (nanofluids) in horizontal tubes. J Heat Transf 130:040301.040301–044503.040304CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Xuan Y, Li Q (2000) Heat transfer enhancement of nanofluids. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 21:58–64CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Yu W, France DM, Routbort JL, Choi SU (2008) Review and comparison of nanofluid thermal conductivity and heat transfer enhancements. Heat Transf Eng 29:432–460CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Zeinali Heris S, Nasr Esfahany M, Etemad SG (2007) Experimental investigation of convective heat transfer of Al2O3/water nanofluid in circular tube. Int J Heat Fluid Flow 28:203–210CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Zhang W, He W, Jing X (2010) Preparation of a stable graphene dispersion with high concentration by ultrasound. J Phys Chem B 114:10368–10373CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ahmed A. Hussien
    • 1
    Email author
  • Nadiahnor Md Yusop
    • 2
  • Moh’d A. Al-Nimr
    • 3
  • Mohd Z. Abdullah
    • 4
  • Ayub Ahmed Janvekar
    • 5
  • Mohamed H. Elnaggar
    • 6
  1. 1.Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringAl-Hussein Bin Talal UniversityMa’anJordan
  2. 2.Faculty of Chemical EngineeringUniversiti Teknologi MaraShah AlamMalaysia
  3. 3.Department of Mechanical EngineeringJordan University of Science and TechnologyIrbidJordan
  4. 4.School of Aerospace EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  5. 5.School of Mechanical EngineeringUniversiti Sains MalaysiaNibong TebalMalaysia
  6. 6.Engineering DepartmentPalestine Technical CollegeDeir EL-BalahPalestine

Personalised recommendations