Fermentation Enhances Redox Protective Activities of Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex Lawson Extracts

  • SaboonEmail author
  • Muhammad Arshad
  • Muhammad Sheeraz Ahmad
  • Zia-ur-Rehman Mashwani
Research Paper


Plant-based medicines play an important role in the life of human being. In this era, some modern and ancient techniques are used to enhance the therapeutic potential of plants. Fermentation is one of the ancient techniques used to improve the medicinal effect of the plants. Gymnosporia royleana Wall. ex Lawson roots and leaves were compared with respect to their free radical scavenging potential with fermented and non-fermented extracts. Qualitative phytochemicals analysis of this plant showed the presence of important phytochemicals. The yield parameter was also measured in five different solvents, i.e., n hexane, ethyl acetate, methanol, ethanol and water. Maximum yield was shown by the methanolic leaf extract (11%) and minimum by n-hexane root extract (0.3%). Free radical scavenging effect was observed in two sets (fermented and non-fermented). Fermentation was done by β-glucosidase enzyme. Four different scavenging assays were used. In all assays, maximum scavenging potential was shown by ethyl acetate extract and minimum by n-hexane. In all assays, fermented extracts were good in their scavenging potential as compared to the non-fermented. Among all assays, plant extracts gave more positive result with phosphomolybdate assay compared to other assays. Our finding confirms that the fermentation helps in enhancing antioxidant potential of plant extract.


Gymnosporia royleana β-Glucosidase Fermentation Free radical scavenging 


Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.


  1. Aberoumand A, Deokule SS (2008) Comparison of phenolic compounds of some edible plants of Iran and India. Pak J Nut 7(4):582–585CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arulpriya P, Lalitha P, Hemalatha S (2010) In vitro antioxidant testing of the extracts of Samanea saman (Jacq.)Merr. Der Chemica Sinica 1(2):73–79Google Scholar
  3. Batool S, Gulfraz M, Akram A, Naqvi SMS, Ihsan-ul-Haq Mirza B, Ahmad MS (2015) Evaluation of antioxidant potential and HPLC based identification of phenolics in Polygonum amplexicaule extract and its fractions. Pak J Pharm Sci 28(2):431–435Google Scholar
  4. Berrin JG, Czjzek M, Kroon PA, Mclauchlan WR, Puigserver A, Williamson G, Juge N (2003) Substrate (aglycone) specificity of human cytosolic b-glucosidase. Biochem J 373:41–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Blois MS (1958) Antioxidant determinations by the use of a stable free radical. Nature 181:1199–1200CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bulbul IJ, Nahar L, Haque M (2011) Antibacterial, cytotoxic and antioxidant activity of chloroform, n-hexane and ethyl acetate extract of plant Coccinia cordifolia. Agric Biol J N Am 2(4):713–719CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Caragay AB (1992) Cancer preventive foods and ingredients. Food Tech 46(4):65–68Google Scholar
  8. Chudary M, Khan MA, Hanif W (2006) Ethno veterinary medicinal uses of plant from samahni valley district Bhimber (Azad kashmir) Pakistan. Asian J Plant Sci 5(2):390–396CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Doss A (2009) Preliminary phytochemical screening of some Indian medicinal plants. Anc Sci Life 29:12–16Google Scholar
  10. El-Batal AI, Abd-Algawad MH, Abdelbaky NM (2012) Enhancement of some natural antioxidant activity via microbial bioconversion process using gamma irradiation and incorporation into gold nanoparticles. World Appl Sci J 19(1):1–11Google Scholar
  11. Frias J, Miranda ML, Doblado R, Vidal-Valverde C (2005) Effect of germination and fermentation on the antioxidant vitamin content and antioxidant capacity of Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa. Food Chem 92(2):211–220CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Gyamfi MA, Yonamine M, Aniya Y (1999) Free-radical scavenging action of medicinal herbs from Ghana: Thonningia Sanguine on experimentally-induced liver injuries. Gen Pharmacol 32:661–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Halliwell B (1989) Free radicals, reactive oxygen species and human disease: a critical evaluation with special reference to atherosclerosis. Br J Exp Pathol 70:737–757Google Scholar
  14. Harborne JB (1973) Phytochemical methods. Chapman and Hall Ltd, London, pp 49–188Google Scholar
  15. Jan S, Khan MA, ud din S, Murad W, Hussain M, Ghani A (2008) Herbal remedies used for gastrointestinal disorders in Kaghan valley, NWFP, Pakistan. Pak J Weed Sci Res 14(3–4):169–200Google Scholar
  16. Jayanthi P, Lalitha P (2011) Reducing power of the solvent extracts of Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms. Int J Pharm Pharm Sci 3(3):126–128Google Scholar
  17. Juan MY, Chou CC (2010) Enhancement of antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content of black soy beans by solid state fermentation with Bacillus subtilis BCRC 14715. Food Microbiol 27:586–591CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Kanwal M (2015) Role of deglycosylation for antioxidant potential of selected plant extracts. 2015Google Scholar
  19. Krishnaiah D, Sarbatly R, Bono A (2007) Phytochemical antioxidants for health and medicine: a move towards nature. Biotechnol Mol Biol Rev 1(4):97–104Google Scholar
  20. Lata H, Ahuja GK (2003) Role of free radicals in health and disease. Ind J Physiol Allied Sci 57:124–132Google Scholar
  21. Mahdi-Pour B, Jothy SL, Latha LY, Chen Y, Sasidharan S (2012) Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara. Asian Pac J Trop Biomed 2(12):960–965CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Maqsood M, Qureshi R, Ikram M, Ali S, Rafi M, Khan JA, Ahmed MS (2015) Preliminary screening of methanolic plant extracts against human rhabdomyosarcoma cell line from Salt Range, Pakistan. Pak J Bot 47(1):353–357Google Scholar
  23. Oktay M, Gulcin I, Kufrevioglu OI (2003) Determination of in vitro antioxidant activity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed extracts. Lebensum Wiss U Technol 36:263–271CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Oyaizu M (1986) Studies on products of browning reaction: antioxidant activities of products of browning reaction prepared from glucosamine. Jpn J Nutr 44:307–315CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Parinitha M, Harish GU, Vivek NC, Mehash T, Shivanna MB (2004) Ethno-botanical wealth of Bhadra wild life sanctuary in Karnataka. Indian J Trad Knowl 3(1):37–50Google Scholar
  26. Pourmorad F, Hosseinimehr SJ, Shahabimajd N (2006) Antioxidant activity, phenols, flavonoid contents of selected Iranian medicinal plants. Afr J Biotechnol 5(11):1142–1145Google Scholar
  27. Pratt DE (1992) Natural antioxidants from plant materials. In: Huang IMT, Ho CT, Lee CY (eds) Phenolic compounds in food and their effects on health. American Chemical Society, New York, pp 54–72CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Prieto P, Pineda M, Aguliar M (1999) Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Ann Biochem 269:337–341CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Robinson D (1966) The β-glucosidase and β-galactosidase components of Medicago sativa L. Phytochemistry 5:699–705CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Ruch RJ, Chung SU, Klaunig JE (1984) Spin trapping of superoxide and hydroxyl radicals. Methods Enzymol 105:198–209CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Saha K, Lajis NH, Israf DA, Hamzah AS, Khozirah S, Khamis S, Syahida A (2004) Evaluation of antioxidant and nitric oxide inhibitory activities of selected Malaysian medicinal plant. J Ethnopharmacol 92:263–267CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Sahreen S, Khan MR, Khan RA (2010) Evaluation of antioxidant activities of various solvent extracts of Carissa opaca fruits. Food Chem 122:1205–1211CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Sarwat SZ, Ahmad N (2012) Screening of potential medicinal plants from district Swat specific for controlling women diseases. Pak J Bot 44(4):1193–1198Google Scholar
  34. Shabbir M, Khan MR, Saeed N (2013) Assessment of phytochemicals, antioxidant, anti-lipid peroxidation and anti-hemolytic activity of extract and various fractions of Maytenus royleanus leaves. BMC Complement Altern Med 13(143):1–13Google Scholar
  35. Torino MI, Limón RI, Martínez-Villaluenga C, Mäkinen S, Pihlanto A, Vidal-Valverde C, Frias J (2013) Antioxidant and antihypertensive properties of liquid and solid state fermented lentils. Food Chem 136(2):1030–1037CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Trease GE, Evans WC (1989) Pharmacognosy, 13th edn. Balliere Tindall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Ul-Haq I, Ullah N, Bibia G, Kanwal S, Ahmadb MS, Mirza B (2012) Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and phytochemical analysis of Euphorbia wallichii root extract and its fractions. Iran J Pharm Res 11(1):241–249Google Scholar
  38. Verpoorte R (2000) Pharmacognosy in the New Millenium: lead finding and Biotechnology. J Pharm Pharmacol 52(3):253–262CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Vijyalakshmi R, Ravindran R (2012) Preliminary comparative phytochemical screening of root extracts of Diospyrus ferrea (Wild.) Bakh and Arva lanata (L.) Juss. Ex Schultes. Asian J Plant Sci Res 2:581–587Google Scholar
  40. Wink M (1999) Biochemistry of plant secondary metabolism. Annual plant reviews, 2. Sheffield Academic Press Ltd. £85 (hardback), SheffieldGoogle Scholar
  41. Wolosowska S, Synowiecki J (2004) Thermostable β-glucosidase with a broad substrate specifity suitable for processing of lactose-containing products. Food Chem 85:181–187CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zhang Z, Lv G, Pan H, Fan L, Soccol CR, Pandey A (2012) Production of powerful antioxidant supplements via solid-state fermentatin of wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn.) by cordyceps militaris. Food Technol Biotech 50(1):32–39Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shiraz University 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyPMAS Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan
  2. 2.Department of BiochemistryPMAS Arid Agriculture UniversityRawalpindiPakistan

Personalised recommendations